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SQL : Multiple Row and Column Subqueries

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Multiple Row Subqueries

Multiple row subquery returns one or more rows to the outer SQL statement. You may use the IN, ANY, or ALL operator in outer query to handle a subquery that returns multiple rows.

Contents:

SQL: Using IN operator with a Multiple Row Subquery

IN operator is used to checking a value within a set of values. The list of values may come from the results returned by a subquery. See the following example :

To get 'ord_num', 'ord_amount', 'ord_date', 'cust_code' and 'agent_code' from the table 'orders' with following conditions :

Sample table : agents

Sample table : orders


in the outer query :
'agent_code' of 'orders' table must be in the list within IN operator in inner query :

in inner query :
'working_area' of 'agents' table must be 'Bangalore',

Here is the complete SQL statement :

SELECT ord_num,ord_amount,ord_date,
cust_code, agent_code
FROM orders
WHERE agent_code IN(
SELECT agent_code FROM agents
WHERE working_area='Bangalore');

Output :

   ORD_NUM ORD_AMOUNT ORD_DATE  CUST_CODE  AGENT_CODE
---------- ---------- --------- ---------- ----------
    200130       2500 30-JUL-08 C00025     A011
    200105       2500 18-JUL-08 C00025     A011
    200117        800 20-OCT-08 C00014     A001
    200124        500 20-JUN-08 C00017     A007
    200112       2000 30-MAY-08 C00016     A007

Let's break the above query and analyze what's going on in inner query. Here is the code of inner query :

SELECT agent_code FROM agents
WHERE working_area='Bangalore';

Output :

AGENT_CODE
----------
A001
A007
A011

The above query returns two agent codes 'A011' and 'A001'.

Pictorial Presentation :

SQL: Using IN operator with a Multiple Row Subquery.

SQL: Using NOT IN operator with a Multiple Row Subquery

You can also use NOT IN operator to perform the logical opposite of IN operator. See the following example :

Sample table : orders

Sample table : agents

To get 'ord_num', 'ord_amount', 'ord_date', 'cust_code' and 'agent_code' from the table 'orders' with following conditions :

in outer query :
 'agent_code' of 'orders' table must be other than the list within IN operator.

in inner query :
'working_area' of 'agents' table must be 'Mumbai'

Here is the complete SQL statement :

SELECT ord_num,ord_amount,ord_date,
cust_code, agent_code
FROM orders
WHERE agent_code NOT IN(
SELECT agent_code FROM agents
WHERE working_area='Bangalore');

Output :

  ORD_NUM ORD_AMOUNT ORD_DATE  CUST_CODE  AGENT_CO
--------- ---------- --------- ---------- --------
   200129       2500 20-JUL-08 C00024     A006
   200118        500 20-JUL-08 C00023     A006
   200111       1000 10-JUL-08 C00020     A008
   200101       3000 15-JUL-08 C00001     A008
   200114       3500 15-AUG-08 C00002     A008
   200100       1000 08-JAN-08 C00015     A003
   200127       2500 20-JUL-08 C00015     A003
   200113       4000 10-JUN-08 C00022     A002
   200133       1200 29-JUN-08 C00009     A002
   200128       3500 20-JUL-08 C00009     A002
   200126        500 24-JUN-08 C00022     A002
   200120        500 20-JUL-08 C00009     A002
   200123        500 16-SEP-08 C00022     A002
   200106       2500 20-APR-08 C00005     A002
   200116        500 13-JUL-08 C00010     A009
   200132       4000 15-AUG-08 C00013     A013
   200115       2000 08-FEB-08 C00013     A013
   200125       2000 10-OCT-08 C00018     A005
   200103       1500 15-MAY-08 C00021     A005
   200134       4200 25-SEP-08 C00004     A005
.........
.........

Let's break the above query and analyze what's going on in inner query. Here is the code of inner query :

SELECT agent_code FROM agents
WHERE working_area='Bangalore';

Output :

AGENT_CODE
----------
A001
A007
A011

Pictorial Presentation :

SQL: Using NOT IN operator with a Multiple Row Subquery.

SQL: Using ANY with a Multiple Row Subquery

You can use the ANY operator to compare a value with any value in a list. You must place an =, <>, >, <, <= or >= operator before ANY in your query. The following example uses ANY to check if any of the agent who belongs to the country 'UK'.

Sample table : agents

Sample table : customer

To get 'agent_code', 'agent_name', 'working_area', 'commission' from 'agents' table with following conditions -

in outer query :
'agent_code' should be any 'agent_code' from 'customer' table

in inner query :
)
'cust_country' in the 'customer' table must be 'UK',

Here is the complete SQL statement :

SELECT agent_code,agent_name,working_area,commission
FROM  agents
WHERE agent_code=ANY(
SELECT agent_code FROM customer
WHERE cust_country='UK');

Output :

AGENT_CODE AGENT_NAME                               WORKING_AREA                        COMMISSION
---------- ---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------- ----------
A009       Benjamin                                 Hampshair                                  .11
A003       Alex                                     London                                     .13
A006       McDen                                    London                                     .15

Pictorical Presentation :

SQL: Using ANY with a Multiple Row Subquery.

SQL: Multiple Column Subqueries

You can write subqueries that return multiple columns. The following example retrieves the order amount with the lowest price, group by agent code.

Sample table : orders

select ord_num, agent_code, ord_date, ord_amount
from orders
where(agent_code, ord_amount) IN
(SELECT agent_code, MIN(ord_amount)
FROM orders 
GROUP BY agent_code);  

Output :

   ORD_NUM AGENT_CODE ORD_DATE  ORD_AMOUNT
---------- ---------- --------- ----------
    200104 A004       13-MAR-08       1500
    200121 A004       23-SEP-08       1500
    200126 A002       24-JUN-08        500
    200120 A002       20-JUL-08        500
    200123 A002       16-SEP-08        500
    200124 A007       20-JUN-08        500
    200116 A009       13-JUL-08        500
    200105 A011       18-JUL-08       2500
    200130 A011       30-JUL-08       2500
    200131 A012       26-AUG-08        900
    200135 A010       16-SEP-08       2000
    200115 A013       08-FEB-08       2000
    200117 A001       20-OCT-08        800
    200111 A008       10-JUL-08       1000
    200118 A006       20-JUL-08        500
    200103 A005       15-MAY-08       1500
    200100 A003       08-JAN-08       1000

Pictorial Presentation :

SQL: Multiple Column Subqueries

SQL: Subqueries using DISTINCT

In this section, we are discussing the usage of DISTINCT clause in a subquery.

Example :

Sample table : orders

To get 'ord_num', 'ord_amount', 'ord_date', 'cust_code' and 'agent_code' from the table 'orders' with following conditions -

in outer query :

the 'agent_code' of 'orders' table must be the same 'agent_code' of 'orders' table with following conditions -
 'agent_code' of 'orders' table should come distinctly with following

inner query :
;the 'cust_code' of 'orders' table must be 'C00005'

Here is the complete SQL statement :

SELECT ord_num,ord_amount,ord_date,
cust_code, agent_code
FROM orders
WHERE agent_code=(
SELECT DISTINCT agent_code
FROM orders WHERE cust_code='C00005');

Output :

   ORD_NUM ORD_AMOUNT ORD_DATE  CUST_CODE  AGENT_CODE
---------- ---------- --------- ---------- ----------
    200106       2500 20-APR-08 C00005     A002
    200123        500 16-SEP-08 C00022     A002
    200120        500 20-JUL-08 C00009     A002
    200126        500 24-JUN-08 C00022     A002
    200128       3500 20-JUL-08 C00009     A002
    200133       1200 29-JUN-08 C00009     A002
    200113       4000 10-JUN-08 C00022     A002

The inner of the above query returns the 'agent_code' A002.

The simplified form of above code is :

SELECT ord_num,ord_amount,ord_date,
cust_code, agent_code
FROM orders
WHERE agent_code='A002';

Pictorial Presentation :

SQL: Subqueries using DISTINCT.

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