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Python Operators

Operators and Operands

In computer programming languages operators are special symbols which represent computations, conditional matching etc. The values the operator uses are called operands.

```c = a + b
Here a and b are called operands  and '+'  is an  operator
```

Python supports following operators.

• Arithmetic Operators
• Comparison Operators
• Logical Operators
• Assignment Operators
• Bitwise Operator
• Conditional Operators

Python Arithmetic Operators

Operator Name Example Result
+ Addition x+y Sum of x and y.
- Subtraction x-y Difference of x and y.
* Multiplication x*y Product of x and y.
/ Division x/y Quotient of x and y.
% Modulus x%y Remainder of x divided by y.
** Exponent x**y x**y will give x to the power y
// Floor Division x/ y The division of operands where the result is the quotient in which the digits after the decimal point are removed.

See the following statements in Python Shell.

Python Comparison Operators

Operator Name Example Result
== Equal x==y True if x is exactly equal to y.
!= Not equal x!=y True if x is exactly not equal to y.
> Greater than x>y True if x (left-hand argument) is greater than y (right-hand argument).
< Less than x<y True if x (left-hand argument) is less than y (right-hand argument).
>= Greater than or equal to x>=y True if x (left-hand argument) is greater than or equal to y (left-hand argument).
<= Less than or equal to x<=y True if x (left-hand argument) is less than or equal to y (right-hand argument).

See the following statements in Python Shell.

Python Logical Operators

Operator Example Result
and (x and y) is True if both x and y are true.
or (x or y) is True if either x or y is true.
not (x not y) If a condition is true then Logical not operator will make false.

See the following statements in Python Shell.

Python Assignment Operators

Operator Shorthand Expression Description
+= x+=y x = x + y Adds 2 numbers and assigns the result to left operand.
-= x-= y x = x -y Subtracts 2 numbers and assigns the result to left operand.
*= x*= y x = x*y Multiplies 2 numbers and assigns the result to left operand.
/= x/= y x = x/y Divides 2 numbers and assigns the result to left operand.
%= x%= y x = x%y Computes the modulus of 2 numbers and assigns the result to left operand.
**= x**=y x = x**y Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators and assign value to the equivalent to left operand.
//= x//=y x = x//y Performs floor division on operators and assign value to the left operand.

See the following statements in Python Shell.

Python Bitwise Operators

Operator Shorthand Expression Description
& And x & y Bits that are set in both x and y are set.
| Or x | y Bits that are set in either x or y are set.
^ Xor x ^ y Bits that are set in x or y but not both are set.
~ Not ~x Bits that are set in x are not set, and vice versa.
<< Shift left x <<y Shift the bits of x, y steps to the left
>> Shift right x >>y Shift the bits of x, y steps to the right.

# Each step means 'multiply by two'
* Each step means 'divide by two'

Conditional Operators

Conditional expressions or ternary operator have the lowest priority of all Python operations. The expression x if C else y first evaluates the condition, C (not x); if C is true, x is evaluated and its value is returned; otherwise, y is evaluated and its value is returned.

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