# Python Simple Calculator Project with Solutions and Explanations

Calculator:

**Input:** User provides two numbers and selects an operation (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division).

Output: The result of the chosen operation.

Input and output values:

Input values:

Enter the first number: 5

Enter operation (+, -, *, /): +

Enter the second number: 3

Output value: Result: 8

Here are two different solutions for a basic calculator program in Python. Both solutions will accept user input for two numbers and an arithmetic operation (addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division) and then output the result.

**Solution 1: Basic Approach using conditional statements**

**Code:**

```
# Solution 1: Basic Approach Using Conditional Statements
# Get the first number from the user and convert it to a float
first_number = float(input("Enter the first number: "))
# Get the operation from the user (+, -, *, /)
operation = input("Enter operation (+, -, *, /): ")
# Get the second number from the user and convert it to a float
second_number = float(input("Enter the second number: "))
# Initialize a variable to store the result
result = None
# Perform the chosen operation using conditional statements
if operation == '+':
# Addition
result = first_number + second_number
elif operation == '-':
# Subtraction
result = first_number - second_number
elif operation == '*':
# Multiplication
result = first_number * second_number
elif operation == '/':
# Division; check if the second number is not zero to avoid division by zero
if second_number != 0:
result = first_number / second_number
else:
# Handle division by zero error
print("Error: Division by zero is not allowed.")
else:
# Handle invalid operations
print("Error: Invalid operation.")
# Print the result if a valid operation was performed
if result is not None:
print(f"Result: {result}")
```

**Output:**

Enter the first number: 12 Enter operation (+, -, *, /): + Enter the second number: 33 Result: 45.0

Enter the first number: 5 Enter operation (+, -, *, /): * Enter the second number: 7 Result: 35.0

Enter the first number: 120 Enter operation (+, -, *, /): / Enter the second number: 13 Result: 9.23076923076923

Enter the first number: 34 Enter operation (+, -, *, /): - Enter the second number: 8 Result: 26.0

**Explanation:**

- Uses if-elif-else statements to check the user's chosen operation and perform the corresponding arithmetic calculation.
- Takes user input for two numbers and the desired operation, converts the numbers to floats, and checks for errors such as division by zero or an invalid operation.
- This solution is straightforward but can become lengthy if more operations are added.

**Solution 2: Using a Dictionary and Functions for Cleaner Code**

**Code:**

```
# Solution 2: Using a Dictionary and Functions for Cleaner Code
# Define functions for each arithmetic operation
def add(x, y):
"""Function to perform addition"""
return x + y
def subtract(x, y):
"""Function to perform subtraction"""
return x - y
def multiply(x, y):
"""Function to perform multiplication"""
return x * y
def divide(x, y):
"""Function to perform division, checks for division by zero"""
if y == 0:
return "Error: Division by zero is not allowed."
return x / y
# Map operations to their corresponding functions using a dictionary
operations = {
'+': add,
'-': subtract,
'*': multiply,
'/': divide
}
# Get user input for the first number, operation, and second number
first_number = float(input("Enter the first number: "))
operation = input("Enter operation (+, -, *, /): ")
second_number = float(input("Enter the second number: "))
# Check if the chosen operation is valid
if operation in operations:
# Retrieve the function corresponding to the chosen operation
result = operations[operation](first_number, second_number)
print(f"Result: {result}")
else:
# Handle invalid operations
print("Error: Invalid operation.")
```

Output:

Enter the first number: 12 Enter operation (+, -, *, /): + Enter the second number: 33 Result: 45.0

Enter the first number: 5 Enter operation (+, -, *, /): * Enter the second number: 7 Result: 35.0

Enter the first number: 120 Enter operation (+, -, *, /): / Enter the second number: 13 Result: 9.23076923076923

Enter the first number: 34 Enter operation (+, -, *, /): - Enter the second number: 8 Result: 26.0

**Explanation:**

- Defines separate functions for each arithmetic operation (add, subtract, multiply, divide).
- Uses a dictionary to map user inputs (+, -, *, /) to the corresponding functions.
- When the user inputs an operation, the corresponding function is called from the dictionary, making the code more modular, organized, and easier to extend.
- Handles errors such as division by zero and invalid operations in a clean, centralized way.

**Note:** Both solutions accomplish the task, but Solution 2 is more modular, making it easier to maintain and extend for future improvements or additional operations.

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