Implement a Multi-threaded Web Scraper that respects robots.txt rules

Write a Python program to implement a multi-threaded web scraper that respects robots.txt rules.

The task is to develop a Python program that implements a multi-threaded web scraper, designed to efficiently fetch data from multiple web pages concurrently while adhering to the rules specified in each site's "robots.txt" file. This ensures the scraper respects website policies on which pages can be accessed and the frequency of requests. The program will manage multiple threads to handle simultaneous connections, making the data retrieval process faster and more efficient.

Sample Solution:

Python Code :

import requests  # Import the requests module to handle HTTP requests
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup  # Import BeautifulSoup for parsing HTML
from concurrent.futures import ThreadPoolExecutor  # Import ThreadPoolExecutor for multi-threading
import urllib.robotparser  # Import robotparser to handle robots.txt rules
from urllib.parse import urlparse, urljoin  # Import urlparse and urljoin for URL manipulation

# Function to check if a URL is allowed to be scraped according to robots.txt
def is_allowed(url, user_agent='*'):
    # Parse the URL to get the base URL
    parsed_url = urlparse(url)
    base_url = f'{parsed_url.scheme}://{parsed_url.netloc}'
    robots_url = urljoin(base_url, 'robots.txt')
    # Parse robots.txt
    rp = urllib.robotparser.RobotFileParser()
    # Check if the URL is allowed to be accessed
    return rp.can_fetch(user_agent, url)

# Function to fetch and parse a webpage
def fetch_page(url):
    # Check if the URL is allowed to be scraped
    if not is_allowed(url):
        print(f'Scraping not allowed for {url}')
        return None
        # Send a GET request to the URL
        response = requests.get(url)
        # Check if the request was successful
        if response.status_code == 200:
            print(f'Successfully fetched {url}')
            # Parse the HTML content of the page
            soup = BeautifulSoup(response.content, 'html.parser')
            return soup
            print(f'Failed to fetch {url} with status code {response.status_code}')
    except Exception as e:
        print(f'Exception occurred while fetching {url}: {e}')
    return None

# Function to extract all links from a webpage
def extract_links(soup, base_url):
    links = []
    if soup:
        # Find all anchor tags with href attribute
        for link in soup.find_all('a', href=True):
            # Resolve relative URLs
            full_url = urljoin(base_url, link['href'])
    return links

# Function to scrape a list of URLs using multiple threads
def scrape_urls(urls, max_workers=5):
    with ThreadPoolExecutor(max_workers=max_workers) as executor:
        # Submit fetch_page tasks to the ThreadPoolExecutor
        futures = {executor.submit(fetch_page, url): url for url in urls}
        results = []
        for future in futures:
            result = future.result()
            if result:
        return results

# Main function to start the web scraper
def main():
    start_url = 'https://example.com'  # Replace with the URL you want to start scraping from
    #start_url = 'https://google.com'  # Replace with the URL you want to start scraping from
    soup = fetch_page(start_url)
    if not soup:
    # Extract links from the start page
    links = extract_links(soup, start_url)
    # Scrape the extracted links
    pages = scrape_urls(links)
    # Optionally, you can further process the scraped pages
    for page in pages:
        # Example: print the title of each page
        if page:
            title = page.find('title').get_text()
            print(f'Page title: {title}')

if __name__ == '__main__':


Successfully fetched https://example.com
Successfully fetched https://www.iana.org/domains/example
Page title: Example Domains

Scraping not allowed for https://google.com


  • Importing Modules: Various modules are imported for handling HTTP requests, parsing HTML, and multi-threading.
  • is_allowed Function: This function checks if the scraping of a URL is allowed according to the site's "robots.txt" file.
  • fetch_page Function: This function fetches and parses a webpage if scraping is allowed.
  • extract_links Function: This function extracts all links from a webpage.
  • scrape_urls Function: This function uses a thread pool to scrape multiple URLs concurrently.
  • main Function: The main function starts the web scraper by fetching the start URL, extracting links, and scraping the extracted links.
  • Note: Replace 'https://example.com' with the URL you want to start scraping from. This program respects the "robots.txt" rules, ensuring it only scrapes allowed pages.

Python Code Editor :

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