# NumPy: Calculate the QR decomposition of a given matrix

## NumPy: Linear Algebra Exercise-13 with Solution

Write a NumPy program to calculate the QR decomposition of a given matrix.

From Wikipedia: In linear algebra, a QR decomposition (also called a QR factorization) of a matrix is a decomposition of a matrix A into a product A = QR of an orthogonal matrix Q and an upper triangular matrix R. QR decomposition is often used to solve the linear least squares problem and is the basis for a particular eigenvalue algorithm, the QR algorithm.

**Square matrix**

Any real square matrix A may be decomposed as

where Q is an orthogonal matrix (its columns are orthogonal unit vectors meaning {\displaystyle Q^{\textsf {T}}Q=QQ^{\textsf {T}}=I} {\displaystyle Q^{\textsf {T}}Q=QQ^{\textsf {T}}=I}) and R is an upper triangular matrix (also called right triangular matrix). If A is invertible, then the factorization is unique if we require the diagonal elements of R to be positive.

If instead A is a complex square matrix, then there is a decomposition A = QR where Q is a unitary matrix (so {\displaystyle Q^{*}Q=QQ^{*}=I} {\displaystyle Q^{*}Q=QQ^{*}=I}).

If A has n linearly independent columns, then the first n columns of Q form an orthonormal basis for the column space of A. More generally, the first k columns of Q form an orthonormal basis for the span of the first k columns of A for any 1 ≤ k ≤ n.[1] The fact that any column k of A only depends on the first k columns of Q is responsible for the triangular form of R.[1]

**Sample Solution** :

**Python Code :**

```
import numpy as np
m = np.array([[1,2],[3,4]])
print("Original matrix:")
print(m)
result = np.linalg.qr(m)
print("Decomposition of the said matrix:")
print(result)
```

Sample Output:

Original matrix: [[1 2] [3 4]] Decomposition of the said matrix: (array([[-0.31622777, -0.9486833 ], [-0.9486833 , 0.31622777]]), array([[-3.16227766, -4.42718872], [ 0. , -0.63245553]]))

**Python Code Editor:**

**Have another way to solve this solution? Contribute your code (and comments) through Disqus.**

**Previous:** Write a NumPy program to compute the inverse of a given matrix.

**Next:** Write a NumPy program to compute the condition number of a given matrix.

**What is the difficulty level of this exercise?**

Test your Python skills with w3resource's quiz

## Python: Tips of the Day

**Finding the most common elements in an iterable:**

Example:

# collections.Counter lets you find the most common # elements in an iterable: import collections c = collections.Counter('helloworld') print(c) print (c.most_common(3))

Output:

Counter({'l': 3, 'o': 2, 'h': 1, 'e': 1, 'w': 1, 'r': 1, 'd': 1}) [('l', 3), ('o', 2), ('h', 1)]

**New Content published on w3resource:**- Scala Programming Exercises, Practice, Solution
- Python Itertools exercises
- Python Numpy exercises
- Python GeoPy Package exercises
- Python Pandas exercises
- Python nltk exercises
- Python BeautifulSoup exercises
- Form Template
- Composer - PHP Package Manager
- PHPUnit - PHP Testing
- Laravel - PHP Framework
- Angular - JavaScript Framework
- React - JavaScript Library
- Vue - JavaScript Framework
- Jest - JavaScript Testing Framework