﻿ Python: Intersection of sets - w3resource # Python: Intersection of sets

## Python sets: Exercise-6 with Solution

Write a Python program to create an intersection of sets.

In mathematics, the intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A ∩ B, is the set containing all elements of A that also belong to B (or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A).

In set-builder notation, A ∩ B = {x ∈ U : x ∈ A and x ∈ B}.

The Venn diagram for A ∩ B is shown to the right where the shaded region represents the set A ∩ B. Example: Let A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {b, d, e}. Then A ∩ B = {b, d}. The elements b and d are the only elements that are in both sets A and B. Sample Solution-1:

Python Code:

``````setx = set(["green", "blue"])
sety = set(["blue", "yellow"])
print("Original set elements:")
print(setx)
print(sety)
print("\nIntersection of two said sets:")
setz = setx & sety
print(setz)
```
```

Sample Output:

```Original set elements:
{'green', 'blue'}
{'blue', 'yellow'}

Intersection of two said sets:
{'blue'}
```

Pictorial Presentation: ## Visualize Python code execution:

The following tool visualize what the computer is doing step-by-step as it executes the said program:

Sample Solution-2:

Python Code:

``````def intersection_of_sets(sc1, sc2):
result = []
for i in sc1:
if i in sc2:
result.append(i)
return result
sc1 = {"green", "blue"}
sc2 = {"blue", "yellow"}
print("Original set elements:")
print(sc1)
print(sc2)
print("\nIntersection of two said sets:")
print(intersection_of_sets(sc1, sc2))
```
```

Sample Output:

```Original set elements:
{'green', 'blue'}
{'yellow', 'blue'}

Intersection of two said sets:
['blue']
```

Flowchart: ## Visualize Python code execution:

The following tool visualize what the computer is doing step-by-step as it executes the said program:

Sample Solution-3:

Python Code:

``````setx = set(["green", "blue"])
sety = set(["blue", "yellow"])
print("Original set elements:")
print(setx)
print(sety)
print("\nIntersection of two said sets:")
result = setx.intersection(sety)
print(result)
```
```

Sample Output:

```Original set elements:
{'green', 'blue'}
{'yellow', 'blue'}

Intersection of two said sets:
['blue']
```

## Visualize Python code execution:

The following tool visualize what the computer is doing step-by-step as it executes the said program:

Python Code Editor:

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﻿

## Python: Tips of the Day

Find the index of an item in a list?

Given a list ["foo", "bar", "baz"] and an item in the list "bar", how do I get its index (1) in Python?

```>>> ["foo", "bar", "baz"].index("bar")
1
```

Caveats follow

Note that while this is perhaps the cleanest way to answer the question as asked, index is a rather weak component of the list API, and I can't remember the last time I used it in anger. It's been pointed out to me in the comments that because this answer is heavily referenced, it should be made more complete. Some caveats about list.index follow. It is probably worth initially taking a look at the documentation for it:

```list.index(x[, start[, end]])
```

Linear time-complexity in list length

An index call checks every element of the list in order, until it finds a match. If your list is long, and you don't know roughly where in the list it occurs, this search could become a bottleneck. In that case, you should consider a different data structure. Note that if you know roughly where to find the match, you can give index a hint. For instance, in this snippet, l.index(999_999, 999_990, 1_000_000) is roughly five orders of magnitude faster than straight l.index(999_999), because the former only has to search 10 entries, while the latter searches a million:

```>>> import timeit
>>> timeit.timeit('l.index(999_999)', setup='l = list(range(0, 1_000_000))', number=1000)
9.356267921015387
>>> timeit.timeit('l.index(999_999, 999_990, 1_000_000)', setup='l = list(range(0, 1_000_000))', number=1000)
0.0004404920036904514
```

Only returns the index of the first match to its argument

A call to index searches through the list in order until it finds a match, and stops there. If you expect to need indices of more matches, you should use a list comprehension, or generator expression.

```>>> [1, 1].index(1)
0
>>> [i for i, e in enumerate([1, 2, 1]) if e == 1]
[0, 2]
>>> g = (i for i, e in enumerate([1, 2, 1]) if e == 1)
>>> next(g)
0
>>> next(g)
2
```

Most places where I once would have used index, I now use a list comprehension or generator expression because they're more generalizable. So if you're considering reaching for index, take a look at these excellent Python features.

Throws if element not present in list

A call to index results in a ValueError if the item's not present.

```>>> [1, 1].index(2)
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ValueError: 2 is not in list
```

If the item might not be present in the list, you should either

• Check for it first with item in my_list (clean, readable approach), or
• Wrap the index call in a try/except block which catches ValueError (probably faster, at least when the list to search is long, and the item is usually present.)

Ref: https://bit.ly/2ALwXwe