﻿ Python: Create a Caesar encryption - w3resource

# Python: Create a Caesar encryption

## Python String: Exercise-25 with Solution

Write a Python program to create a Caesar encryption.

Note: In cryptography, a Caesar cipher, also known as Caesar's cipher, the shift cipher, Caesar's code or Caesar shift, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. It is a type of substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the alphabet. For example, with a left shift of 3, D would be replaced by A, E would become B, and so on. The method is named after Julius Caesar, who used it in his private correspondence.

Sample Solution:-

Python Code:

``````#https://gist.github.com/nchitalov/2f2b03e5cf1e19da1525
def caesar_encrypt(realText, step):
outText = []
cryptText = []

uppercase = ['A', 'B', 'C', 'D', 'E', 'F', 'G', 'H', 'I', 'J', 'K', 'L', 'M', 'N', 'O', 'P', 'Q', 'R', 'S', 'T', 'U', 'V', 'W', 'X', 'Y', 'Z']
lowercase = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'g', 'h', 'i', 'j', 'k', 'l', 'm', 'n', 'o', 'p', 'q', 'r', 's', 't', 'u', 'v', 'w', 'x', 'y', 'z']

for eachLetter in realText:
if eachLetter in uppercase:
index = uppercase.index(eachLetter)
crypting = (index + step) % 26
cryptText.append(crypting)
newLetter = uppercase[crypting]
outText.append(newLetter)
elif eachLetter in lowercase:
index = lowercase.index(eachLetter)
crypting = (index + step) % 26
cryptText.append(crypting)
newLetter = lowercase[crypting]
outText.append(newLetter)
return outText

code = caesar_encrypt('abc', 2)
print()
print(code)
print()
```
```

Sample Output:

```['c', 'd', 'e']
```

Flowchart:

## Visualize Python code execution:

The following tool visualize what the computer is doing step-by-step as it executes the said program:

Python Code Editor:

Have another way to solve this solution? Contribute your code (and comments) through Disqus.

What is the difficulty level of this exercise?

Test your Programming skills with w3resource's quiz.

﻿

## Python: Tips of the Day

Check if a given key already exists in a dictionary:

In is the intended way to test for the existence of a key in a dict.

```d = {"key1": 10, "key2": 23}

if "key1" in d:
print("this will execute")

if "nonexistent key" in d:
print("this will not")
```

If you wanted a default, you can always use dict.get():

```d = dict()

for i in range(100):
key = i % 10
d[key] = d.get(key, 0) + 1
```

and if you wanted to always ensure a default value for any key you can either use dict.setdefault() repeatedly or defaultdict from the collections module, like so:

```from collections import defaultdict

d = defaultdict(int)

for i in range(100):
d[i % 10] += 1
```

but in general, the in keyword is the best way to do it.

Ref: https://bit.ly/2XPMRyz