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C Programming

C Variables, Data Types

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What is variable?

Variables in C have the same meaning as variables in algebra. A variable in C is a storage unit, which sets a space in memory to hold a value and can take different values at different times during program execution.

Rules to construct a valid variable name

1. A variable name may consists of letters, digits and the underscore ( _ ) characters.

2. A variable name must begin with a letter. Some system allows to starts the variable name with an underscore as the first character.

3. ANSI standard recognizes a length of 31 characters for a variable name. However, the length should not be normally more than any combination of eight alphabets, digits, and underscores.

4. Uppercase and lowercase are significant. That is the variable Totamt is not the same as totamt and TOTAMT.

5. The variable name may not be a C reserved word (keyword).

Some valid variable names

Total Amount ctr name1
n1 M_age AMOUNT  

Some invalid variable names

13th (name) 111 %nm

Naming Conventions

Generally, C programmers maintain the following conventions for naming variables.

  • Start a variable name with lowercase letters.
  • Try to use meaningful identifiers
  • Separate "words" within identifiers with mixed upper and lowercase (for example empCode) or underscores (for example emp_code).
  • For symbolic constants use all uppercase letters (for example #define LENGTH 100, #define MRP 45).

Keywords and Identifiers

Every C word is classified as either a keyword or an identifier. Each keyword has a specific meaning and these meanings cannot be changed. Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements. There are only 32 keywords in C. The list of all keywords in ANSI C is listed in the following table. All keywords must be written in lowercase.

auto double int struct
break else long switch
case enum register typedef
char extern return union
const float short unsigned
continue for signed void
default goto sizeof volatile
do if static while

Constants

Constants in C refer to a specific quantity that doesn't change during the execution of a program.

Types of Constants

  • Integer Constants
  • Real Constants
  • Single Character Constants
  • String Constants

Rules to construct Integer Constant

  • An integer constant refers to a sequence of digits. The three types of integers are decimal, octal and hexadecimal
  • No embedded blanks, commas, and non-numeric character are permitted within an integer constant.
  • An integer constant must contain one digit
  • Decimal integers consist set of digits, 0 to 9 without any decimal point and can be preceded by an optional +ve or -ve sign.
  • An octal integer constant contains any combination of digits between 0 and 7 with a leading 0.
  • A hexadecimal constant contains any combination of digits between 0 and 9 and can also hold alphabets between A and F or a and f with prefix 0x or 0X. Alphabets A or a represents number 10 and F or f represents 15.
  • The largest integer value for the 16-bit machine is 32767 and 2147483647 for a 32-bit machine.

Example of various valid numeric constants

Constant Type Constant Type
241 Decimal Integer 047 Octal Integer
-973 Decimal Integer 053 Octal Integer
0 Decimal Integer 0X59 Hexadecimal Integer
+4177 Decimal Integer 0x47F Hexadecimal Integer

Example of some invalid numeric constants

Invalid Constant
05 241
7,412
$120

Rules to construct Real Constant

  • A real constant is a number that may have a fractional part.
  • It could be either +ve or -ve.
  • No embedded blanks, commas, and non-numeric character are permitted within a real constant.
  • A real number may also be expressed in exponential notation. An exponent is an integer number with an optional plus or minus sign. Exponential is useful for representing the number which is very large or very small in magnitude.

Example of various valid real constants

0.0045 -.71
+45.203 0.45e3
-0.547 0.78e-4
337. 2.79E4
.478. -4.69E-4

Data Types

Each program needs a certain kind of data for displaying a meaningful result. This certain kind of data are known as a data type.

ANSI C supports four classes of data types :

  • Primary data types
  • User-defined data types
  • Derived data types
  • Empty data set

All C compilers support four fundamental data types

Type Range of values Description
char
(Characters)
-128 to 127 a single byte(8 bits) and can store one character type data
int
Integers (whole numbers)
-32768 to 32767 an integer type is used to represent whole numbers within a specified range of values.

float
Floating point (real numbers)

3.4e-38 to 3.4e+38 single-precision floating point

double
(Double)

1.7e-308 to 1.7e+308 double-precision floating point

Character Types :

A single character can be defined as a character type data. Characters are usually stored in 8 bits of internal storage. The qualifier signed or unsigned may be explicitly applied to char. While unsigned chars have values between 0 and 255, signed chars have values from -128 to 127.

Integer Types :

C has three classes of integer storage, namely short int, int, and long int, in both signed and unsigned forms.

The keywords signed and unsigned are the two sign qualifiers which specify whether a variable can store positive or negative or both numbers.

The keyword signed uses one bit for a sign and 15 bits for the magnitude of the number in a 16-bit machine.

The keyword unsigned uses to store all the bits for the magnitude of the number and always positive.

Floating Point Types :

Floating point numbers are stored in 32 bits with 6 digits of precision. Floating point numbers are defined in C by the keyword float. When the accuracy provided by a float number is not sufficient, the type double can be used to define the number.

Double Point Types :

A double data type number uses 64 bits giving a precision of 14 digits. These are known as double precision numbers. Remember that double type represents the same data type that float represents but with a greater precision. To extend the precision further, we may use long double which uses 80 bits.

The following table shows the size and range of the type-specifiers on most common implementations :

Type Size(bits) Range
char or signed char 8 -128 to 127
unsigned char 8 0 to 255
int or signed int 16 -32768 to 32767
unsigned int 16 0 to 65535
short int or signed short int 8 -128 to 127
unsigned short int 8 0 to 255
long int or signed long int 32 -2147483648 to 2147483647
unsigned long int 32 0 to 4294967295
float 32 3.4E-38 TO 3.4E+38
double 64 1.7E-308 TO 1.7E+308
long double 80 3.4E-4932 TO 1.1E+4932

Initialization of Variables

Variables are given initial values, or initialized, when declared. See the following examples :

char abc = 'X';
int marks =77;
float amount = 45.23;

Write initialized variables on a separate line and a comment beside the variable name is a good idea. See the following examples :
int qty; /* quantity of an item */
float value = 12.10; /* purchase value of an item */
int marks; /* marks of a subject */



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