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Python: Natural Language Toolkit - Exercises, Solutions

Python NLTK

NLTK is a leading platform for building Python programs to work with human language data. It provides easy-to-use interfaces to over 50 corpora and lexical resources such as WordNet, along with a suite of text processing libraries for classification, tokenization, stemming, tagging, parsing, and semantic reasoning, wrappers for industrial-strength NLP libraries.

The best way we learn anything is by practice and exercise questions. We have started this section for those (beginner to intermediate) who are familiar with Python, Natural Language Toolkit.

Hope, these exercises help you to improve your Python-NLTK coding skills. Currently, following sections are available, we are working hard to add more exercises .... Happy Coding!

List of Python NLTK Exercises :

Installing NLTK:

NLTK requires Python versions 2.7, 3.5, 3.6, or 3.7

Mac/Unix:

  • Install NLTK: run sudo pip install -U nltk
  • Install Numpy (optional): run sudo pip install -U numpy
  • Test installation: run python then type import nltk

Windows:

These instructions assume that you do not already have Python installed on your machine.

  • Install Python 3.7: http://www.python.org/downloads
  • Install Numpy (optional): https://www.scipy.org/scipylib/download.html
  • Install NLTK: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/nltk
  • Test installation: Start>Python37, then type import nltk

anaconda / packages / nltk 3.4.1 Installers:

conda install 
  •  linux-ppc64le  v3.4.1
  •  osx-32  v3.0.4
  •  linux-64  v3.4.1
  •  win-32  v3.4.1
  •  osx-64  v3.4.1
  •  linux-32  v3.4
  •  win-64  v3.4.1

To install this package with conda run:

  conda install -c anaconda nltk 

[ Want to contribute to Python exercises? Send your code (attached with a .zip file) to us at w3resource[at]yahoo[dot]com. Please avoid copyrighted materials.]



Python: Tips of the Day

Python: How to install pip on Windows?

Python 2.7.9+ and 3.4+

Good news! Python 3.4 (released March 2014) and Python 2.7.9 (released December 2014) ship with Pip. This is the best feature of any Python release. It makes the community's wealth of libraries accessible to everyone. Newbies are no longer excluded from using community libraries by the prohibitive difficulty of setup. In shipping with a package manager, Python joins Ruby, Node.js, Haskell, Perl, Go-almost every other contemporary language with a majority open-source community. Thank you, Python.

If you do find that pip is not available when using Python 3.4+ or Python 2.7.9+, simply execute e.g.:

py -3 -m ensurepip

Of course, that doesn't mean Python packaging is problem solved. The experience remains frustrating. I discuss this in the Stack Overflow question Does Python have a package/module management system?.

And, alas for everyone using Python 2.7.8 or earlier (a sizable portion of the community). There's no plan to ship Pip to you. Manual instructions follow.

Python 2 = 2.7.8 and Python 3 = 3.3

Flying in the face of its 'batteries included' motto, Python ships without a package manager. To make matters worse, Pip was-until recently-ironically difficult to install.

Official instructions

Per https://pip.pypa.io/en/stable/installing/#do-i-need-to-install-pip:

Download get-pip.py, being careful to save it as a .py file rather than .txt. Then, run it from the command prompt:

python get-pip.py

You possibly need an administrator command prompt to do this. Follow Start a Command Prompt as an Administrator (Microsoft TechNet).

This installs the pip package, which (in Windows) contains ...\Scripts\pip.exe that path must be in PATH environment variable to use pip from the command line (see the second part of 'Alternative Instructions' for adding it to your PATH,

Alternative instructions

The official documentation tells users to install Pip and each of its dependencies from source. That's tedious for the experienced and prohibitively difficult for newbies.

For our sake, Christoph Gohlke prepares Windows installers (.msi) for popular Python packages. He builds installers for all Python versions, both 32 and 64 bit. You need to:

  1. Install setuptools
  2. Install pip

For me, this installed Pip at C:\Python27\Scripts\pip.exe. Find pip.exe on your computer, then add its folder (for example, C:\Python27\Scripts) to your path (Start / Edit environment variables). Now you should be able to run pip from the command line. Try installing a package:

pip install httpie

There you go (hopefully)! Solutions for common problems are given below:

Proxy problems

If you work in an office, you might be behind an HTTP proxy. If so, set the environment variables http_proxy and https_proxy. Most Python applications (and other free software) respect these. Example syntax:

http://proxy_url:port
http://username:[email protected]_url:port

If you're really unlucky, your proxy might be a Microsoft NTLM proxy. Free software can't cope. The only solution is to install a free software friendly proxy that forwards to the nasty proxy. http://cntlm.sourceforge.net/

Unable to find vcvarsall.bat

Python modules can be partly written in C or C++. Pip tries to compile from source. If you don't have a C/C++ compiler installed and configured, you'll see this cryptic error message.

Error: Unable to find vcvarsall.bat

You can fix that by installing a C++ compiler such as MinGW or Visual C++. Microsoft actually ships one specifically for use with Python. Or try Microsoft Visual C++ Compiler for Python 2.7.

Often though it's easier to check Christoph's site for your package.

Ref: https://bit.ly/2B0ch3y