﻿ NumPy: Capitalize the first letter, lowercase, uppercase, swapcase, title-case of all the elements of a given array - w3resource # NumPy: Capitalize the first letter, lowercase, uppercase, swapcase, title-case of all the elements of a given array

## NumPy String: Exercise-3 with Solution

Write a NumPy program to capitalize the first letter, lowercase, uppercase, swapcase, title-case of all the elements of a given array.

Sample Solution:-

Python Code:

``````import numpy as np
x = np.array(['python', 'PHP', 'java', 'C++'], dtype=np.str)
print("Original Array:")
print(x)
capitalized_case = np.char.capitalize(x)
lowered_case = np.char.lower(x)
uppered_case = np.char.upper(x)
swapcased_case = np.char.swapcase(x)
titlecased_case = np.char.title(x)
print("\nCapitalized: ", capitalized_case)
print("Lowered: ", lowered_case)
print("Uppered: ", uppered_case)
print("Swapcased: ", swapcased_case)
print("Titlecased: ", titlecased_case)
```
```

Sample Input:

```(['python', 'PHP', 'java', 'C++'], dtype=np.str)
```

Sample Output:

```Original Array:
['python' 'PHP' 'java' 'C++']

Capitalized:  ['Python' 'Php' 'Java' 'C++']
Lowered:  ['python' 'php' 'java' 'c++']
Uppered:  ['PYTHON' 'PHP' 'JAVA' 'C++']
Swapcased:  ['PYTHON' 'php' 'JAVA' 'c++']
Titlecased:  ['Python' 'Php' 'Java' 'C++']
```

Pictorial Presentation:     Python Code Editor:

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## Python: Tips of the Day

Getting the last element of a list:

some_list[-1] is the shortest and most Pythonic.

In fact, you can do much more with this syntax. The some_list[-n] syntax gets the nth-to-last element. So some_list[-1] gets the last element, some_list[-2] gets the second to last, etc, all the way down to some_list[-len(some_list)], which gives you the first element.

You can also set list elements in this way. For instance:

```>>> some_list = [1, 2, 3]
>>> some_list[-1] = 5 # Set the last element
>>> some_list[-2] = 3 # Set the second to last element
>>> some_list
[1, 3, 5]
```

Note that getting a list item by index will raise an IndexError if the expected item doesn't exist. This means that some_list[-1] will raise an exception if some_list is empty, because an empty list can't have a last element.

Ref: https://bit.ly/3d8TfFP