SQL putting text in query output

Sometimes, it is required to get an organized output from a SELECT QUERY. For that, it is better to include some user defined columns from the outside at runtime. These columns are valid only for this output. These included columns will appear as a column head and also as the contents for that column.


Sample table: agents

To get a formatted output with user defined column( % ) along with the 'agents' table with the following condition -

1. commission must be more than .14,

the following SQL statement can be used:

SQL Code:

SELECT agent_code,agent_name,
working_area,'  %  ',commission
FROM agents
WHERE commission>0.14;

Relational Algebra Expression:

Relational Algebra Expression: putting text in a query output .

Relational Algebra Tree:

Relational Algebra Tree: putting text in a query output.


AGENT_CODE AGENT_NAME         WORKING_AREA                        '%'   COMMISSION
---------- ----------------------------------------------------- ----- ----------
A007       Ramasundar         Bangalore                             %          .15
A011       Ravi Kumar         Bangalore                             %          .15
A006       McDen              London                                %          .15
A004       Ivan               Torento                               %          .15

SQL putting text in query with group by and order by

To get a formatted output with user defined columns ('For','No.of Agent','Agent(s)','in' and '%' ) along with the 'agents' table with following condition -

1. number of agents for each 'working_area' must be less than 3,

the SQL statement can be used:

SQL Code:

SELECT 'For  ',count(agent_name)as "No.of Agent",
'Agent(s)','   in  ',
working_area,avg(commission),'  %  '
having count(agent_name)<3
GROUP BY working_area
ORDER BY working_area DESC


'FOR' No.of Agent 'AGENT(S 'IN'    WORKING_AREA                        AVG(COMMISSION) '%'
----- ----------- -------- ------- ----------------------------------- --------------- -----
For             1 Agent(s)    in   Torento                                         .15   %
For             1 Agent(s)    in   San Jose                                        .12   %
For             1 Agent(s)    in   New York                                        .12   %
For             1 Agent(s)    in   Mumbai                                          .11   %
For             2 Agent(s)    in   London                                          .14   %
For             1 Agent(s)    in   Hampshair                                       .11   %
For             1 Agent(s)    in   Chennai                                         .14   %
For             1 Agent(s)    in   Brisban                                         .13   %

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What is the simplest SQL Query to find the second largest value?

FROM table 
                   FROM table

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