Python: open() function

open() function

The open() function is used to open a file and returns it as a file object.


(Python 3.2.5)


open(file, mode='r', buffering=-1, encoding=None, errors=None, newline=None, closefd=True, opener=None)


Name Description Required /
file path-like object (representing a file system path) giving the pathname. Required
Character Meaning
'r' open for reading (default)
'w' open for writing, truncating the file first
'x' open for exclusive creation, failing if the file already exists
'a' open for writing, appending to the end of the file if it exists
'b' binary mode
't' text mode (default)
'+' open a disk file for updating (reading and writing)
'U' universal newlines mode (deprecated)
buffering Set buffering policy. Optional
encoding Encode or decode the file. Optional
error String specifying how to handle encoding/decoding errors. Optional
newline how newlines mode works (available values: None, ' ', '\n', 'r', and '\r\n'. Optional
closefd True. If a file descriptor is given, it is closed when the returned I/O object is closed, unless closefd is set to False. Optional
opener A custom opener can be used by passing a callable as opener. Optional

Return value:

Returns a file object which can used to read, write and modify file.

Example: Python open() function

# opens example.text file of the current directory
x = open("example.txt")

Create file: example.txt

Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
	How I wonder what you are! 
		Up above the world so high,   		
		Like a diamond in the sky. 
Twinkle, twinkle, little star, 
	How I wonder what you are!


<_io.TextIOWrapper name='example.txt' mode='r' encoding='UTF-8'>

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How do I check if a list is empty?

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