MySQL CONCAT_WS() function

CONCAT_WS() function

MySQL CONCAT_WS() function is used to join two or more strings with a separator. The separator specified in the first argument is added between two strings. The separator itself can be a string. If the separator is NULL the result is NULL.


CONCAT_WS (separator, string1, string2,…)


Name Description
separator Specifies a separator added between the strings while joining.
string1 First string to be joined.
string2 Second string to be joined. Up to N number of strings can be specified in this way.

Syntax Diagram:

MySQL CONCAT_WS() Function - Syntax Diagram

MySQL Version: 5.6

MySQL: CONCAT_WS() Function - w3resource

Video Presentation:

Pictorial Presentation

MySQL CONCAT_WS() pictorial presentation

Example of MySQL CONCAT_WS() function

The following MySQL statement adds the first argument and second argument with a separator ", ".


SELECT CONCAT_WS(',','1st string','2nd string');

Sample Output:

mysql> SELECT CONCAT_WS(',','1st string','2nd string');
| CONCAT_WS(',','1st string','2nd string') |
| 1st string,2nd string                    | 
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Example of MySQL CONCAT-WS() function with where clause

The following MySQL statement adds arguments (i.e. aut_id, aut_name, country and home_city) with a separator ",", if country of the author is not USA.


SELECT CONCAT_WS(',',aut_id,aut_name,country,home_city) 
FROM author 
WHERE country<>'USA'; 

Sample table: author

Sample Output:

mysql> SELECT CONCAT_WS(',',aut_id,aut_name,country,home_city) 
    -> FROM author 
    -> WHERE country<>'USA';
| CONCAT_WS(',',aut_id,aut_name,country,home_city) |
| AUT001,William Norton,UK,Cambridge               | 
| AUT002,William Maugham,Canada,Toronto            | 
| AUT003,William Anthony,UK,Leeds                  | 
| AUT004,S.B.Swaminathan,India,Bangalore           | 
| AUT005,Thomas Morgan,Germany,Arnsberg            | 
| AUT007,Piers Gibson,UK,London                    | 
| AUT009,Marquis de Ellis,Brazil,Rio De Janerio    | 
| AUT011,John Betjeman Hunter,Australia,Sydney     | 
| AUT012,Evan Hayek,Canada,Vancouver               | 
| AUT013,E. Howard,Australia,Adelaide              | 
| AUT014,C. J. Wilde,UK,London                     | 
11 rows in set (0.00 sec)

PHP script:

<!doctype html>
<html lang="en">
<meta charset="utf-8">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<title>example-concat_ws-function - php mysql examples | w3resource</title>
<meta name="description" content="example-concat_ws-function - php mysql examples | w3resource">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.5/css/bootstrap.min.css">
<div class="container">
<div class="row">
<div class="col-md-12">
<h2>list of authors id, name, country, home city:</h2>
<table class='table table-bordered'>
<th>Author's id, name, country, home city</th>
$db = "your_dbname";
$dbh = new PDO("mysql:host=$hostname;dbname=$db", $username, $password);
foreach($dbh->query('SELECT CONCAT_WS(",",aut_id,aut_name,country,home_city) as output
FROM  author
WHERE country<>"USA"') as $row) {
echo "<tr>";
echo "<td>" . $row['output'] . "</td>";
echo "</tr>";

View the example in browser

JSP script:

<%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<%@ page import="java.sql.*" %>
<%@ page import="java.io.*" %>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
try {
String Host = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/w3resour_bookinfo";
Connection connection = null;
Statement statement = null;
ResultSet rs = null;
connection = DriverManager.getConnection(Host, "root", "datasoft123");
statement = connection.createStatement();
String Data ="SELECT CONCAT_WS(',',aut_id,aut_name,country,home_city) as output FROM  author WHERE country<>'USA'";
rs = statement.executeQuery(Data);
<TABLE border="1">
<tr width="10" bgcolor="#9979">
<td>Author's id, name, country, home city</td>
while (rs.next()) {
<%   }    %>
} catch (Exception ex) {
out.println("Cant connect to database.");

Difference between MySQL GROUP_CONCAT() and CONCAT_WS()

GROUP_CONCAT() function returns a string with concatenated non-NULL value from a group.
CONCAT_WS() function is used to add two or more strings with separator

See the following example:

mysql> SELECT userid, fname, lname  FROM user_details;

| userid   | fname  | lname   |
| scott123 | Scott  | Rayy    |
| ferp6734 | Palash | Ghosh   |
| diana094 | Diana  | Lorentz |
| abcd123  | John   | ray     |
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> SELECT GROUP_CONCAT(CONCAT_WS(' ', fname,lname)) FROM user_details ORDER BY userid ASC;

| GROUP_CONCAT(CONCAT_WS(' ', fname,lname))      |
| Scott Rayy,Palash Ghosh,Diana Lorentz,John ray |
1 row in set (0.03 sec)

Here CONCAT_WS() insert a space as a separator between fname and lname while GROUP_CONCAT() returns the result in a single string.

Online Practice Editor:

All String Functions

MySQL String Functions, slide presentation


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