PHP: Array Operators


This is a Comprehensive PHP array operators tutorial from w3resource.com

List of array operators

Name Example Result
Union $x + $y Union of $x and $y. The + operator appends elements of remaining keys from the right-sided array to the left-handed, but duplicated keys are not overwritten.
Equality $x == $y TRUE if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs.
Identity $x === $y TRUE if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types.
Inequality $x != $y TRUE if $x is not equal to $y.
Inequality $x <> $y TRUE if $x is not equal to $y.
Non-identity $x !== $y TRUE if $x is not identical to $y.

Example : array union (+) operator

In the following example, the union operator adds the last element from the $b array ($c = $a + $b) with $a array as "c=>" key is not present in $a array. In the second statement ($c = $b + $a) no element is added from $b as all the keys of $a array are present in $b array.

$a = array("a" => "apple", "b" => "banana");
$b = array("a" => "pear", "b" => "strawberry", "c" => "cherry");
$c = $a + $b; // Union of $a and $b
echo "Union of \$a and \$b : <br />";
$c = $b + $a; // Union of $b and $a 
echo "<br />Union of \$b and \$a : <br />";


Union of $a and $b: 
array(3) {    ["a"]=>    string(5) "apple"    ["b"]=>    string(6) "banana"    ["c"]=>    string(6) "cherry"  } 
Union of $b and $a :
array(3) {    ["a"]=>    string(4) "pear"    ["b"]=>    string(10) "strawberry"    ["c"]=>    string(6) "cherry"  } 

View the example in the browser

Example : array equality (==) and identity(===) operators

In the following example equality operator returns true as the two arrays have same key/value pairs whereas identity operator returns false as the key/value of the comparing arrays are same but not in same order.

$a = array("1" => "apple", "0" => "banana");
$b = array( "banana", "apple");
var_dump($a == $b);
var_dump($a === $b);


bool(true)  bool(false) 

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Previous: String Operators
Next: Incrementing Decrementing Operators

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PHP: Tips of the Day

PHP: Correct file permissions for WordPress

When you setup WP you (the webserver) may need write access to the files. So the access rights may need to be loose.

chown www-data:www-data  -R * # Let Apache be owner
find . -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;  # Change directory permissions rwxr-xr-x
find . -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;  # Change file permissions rw-r--r-

After the setup you should tighten the access rights, according to Hardening WordPress all files except for wp-content should be writable by your user account only. wp-content must be writable by www-data too.

chown <username>:<username>  -R * # Let your useraccount be owner
chown www-data:www-data wp-content # Let apache be owner of wp-content

Maybe you want to change the contents in wp-content later on. In this case you could

  • temporarily change to the user to www-data with su,
  • give wp-content group write access 775 and join the group www-data or
  • give your user the access rights to the folder using ACLs.

Whatever you do, make sure the files have rw permissions for www-data.

Ref : https://bit.ly/3hcrTkL


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