Python print() function
The print statement has been replaced with a print() function, with keyword arguments to replace most of the special syntax of the old print statement.
The print statement can be used in the following ways :
- print("Good Morning")
- print("Good", <Variable Containing the String>)
- print("Good" + <Variable Containing the String>)
- print("Good %s" % <variable containing the string>)
In Python, single, double and triple quotes are used to denote a string. Most use single quotes when declaring a single character. Double quotes when declaring a line and triple quotes when declaring a paragraph/multiple lines.
print(<el_1>, ..., sep=' ', end='\n', file=sys.stdout, flush=False)
- Use 'file=sys.stderr' for errors.
- Use 'flush=True' to forcibly flush the stream.
from pprint import pprint pprint(<collection>, width=80, depth=None)
- Levels deeper than 'depth' get replaced by '...'.
Double Quotes Use:
print("Python is very simple language")
Python is very simple language
Single Quotes Use:
Triple Quotes Use:
print("""Python is very popular language. It is also friendly language.""")
Python is very Popular Language. It is also friendly language.
Strings can be assigned to variable say string1 and string2 which can called when using the print statement.
str1 = 'Wel' print(str1,'come')
str1 = 'Welcome' str2 = 'Python' print(str1, str2)
String concatenation is the "addition" of two strings. Observe that while concatenating there will be no space between the strings.
str1 = 'Python' str2 = ':' print('Welcome' + str1 + str2)
Using as String:
%s is used to refer to a variable which contains a string.
str1 = 'Python' print("Welcome %s" % str1)
Using other data types:
Similarly, when using other data types
- %d -> Integer
- %e -> exponential
- %f -> Float
- %o -> Octal
- %x -> Hexadecimal
This can be used for conversions inside the print statement itself.
Using as Integer:
print("Actual Number = %d" %15)
Actual Number = 15
Using as Exponential:
print("Exponential equivalent of the number = %e" %15)
Exponential equivalent of the number = 1.500000e+01
Using as Float:
print("Float of the number = %f" %15)
Float of the number = 15.000000
Using as Octal:
print("Octal equivalent of the number = %o" %15)
Octal equivalent of the number = 17
Using as Hexadecimal:
print("Hexadecimal equivalent of the number = %x" %15)
Hexadecimal equivalent of the number = f
Using multiple variables:
When referring to multiple variables parenthesis is used.
str1 = 'World' str2 = ':' print("Python %s %s" %(str1,str2))
Python World :
Other Examples of Print Statement:
The following are other different ways the print statement can be put to use.
% is used for %d type word
print("Welcome to %%Python %s" %'language')
Welcome to %Python language
\n is used for Line Break.
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Any word print multiple times.
\t is used for tab.
Precision Width and Field Width:
Field width is the width of the entire number and precision is the width towards the right. One can alter these widths based on the requirements.
The default Precision Width is set to 6.
Notice upto 6 decimal points are returned. To specify the number of decimal points, '%(fieldwidth).(precisionwidth)f' is used.
print("%f" % 5.1234567890)
Notice upto 5 decimal points are returned
print("%.5f" % 5.1234567890)
If the field width is set more than the necessary than the data right aligns itself to adjust to the specified values.
print("%9.5f" % 5.1234567890)
Zero padding is done by adding a 0 at the start of fieldwidth.
print("%015.5f" % 5.1234567890)
For proper alignment, a space can be left blank in the field width so that when a negative number is used, proper alignment is maintained.
print("% 9f" % 5.1234567890) print("% 9f" % -5.1234567890)
'+' sign can be returned at the beginning of a positive number by adding a + sign at the beginning of the field width.
print("%+9f" % 5.1234567890) print("% 9f" % -5.1234567890)
As mentioned above, the data right aligns itself when the field width mentioned is larger than the actually field width. But left alignment can be done by specifying a negative symbol in the field width.
print("%-9.4f" % 5.1234567890)
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Python: Tips of the Day
Python: Annotated Assignment Statement
This might not seem as impressive as some other tricks but it's a new syntax that was introduced to Python in recent years and just good to be aware of.
Annotated assignments allow the coder to leave type hints in the code. These don't have any enforcing power at least not yet. It's still nice to be able to imply some type hints and definitely offers more options than only being able to comment regarding expected types of variables.
day: str = 'Monday' print(day) lst: list = [1,2,3,4] print(lst)
Monday [1, 2, 3, 4]
Or the same thing in a shorter way:
day= 'Monday' #str print(day) lst= [1,2,3,4] # list print(lst)
Monday [1, 2, 3, 4]
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