SQL Functions

What is a function?

A function is a predefined formula which takes one or more arguments as input then process the arguments and returns an output.

SQL function

There are two types of SQL functions, aggregate functions, and scalar(non-aggregate) functions. Aggregate functions operate on many records and produce a summary, works with GROUP BY whereas non-aggregate functions operate on each record independently.

There are so many built-in functions in SQL to do various calculations on data.

Types of SQL functions

SQL functions Description
SQL Aggregate Function This function can produce a single value for an entire group or table. They operate on sets of rows and return results based on groups of rows.
Some Aggregate functions are -

SQL Arithmetic Function A mathematical function executes a mathematical operation usually based on input values that are provided as arguments, and return a numeric value as the result of the operation. Mathematical functions operate on numeric data such as decimal, integer, float, real, smallint, and tinyint.
Some Arithmetic functions are -

SQL Character Function A character or string function is a function which takes one or more characters or numbers as parameters and returns a character value. Basic string functions offer a number of capabilities and return a string value as a result set.
Some Character functions are -

Practice SQL Exercises

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SQL: Tips of the Day


SELECT t0.col3
FROM table AS t0
LEFT JOIN table AS t1 ON t0.col1=t1.col1 AND t0.col2=t1.col2 AND t1.col3>t0.col3
WHERE t1.col1 IS NULL;

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