# C Programming Exercises, Practice, Solution : Searching and Sorting

## C Searching and Sorting Algorithm [17 exercises with solution]

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1. Write a C program for binary search. Go to the editor

Binary Search : In computer science, a binary search or half-interval search algorithm finds the position of a target value within a sorted array. The binary search algorithm can be classified as a dichotomies divide-and-conquer search algorithm and executes in logarithmic time.

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2. Write a C program to sort a list of elements using the selection sort algorithm. Go to the editor

*According to Wikipedia “In computer science, selection sort is a sorting algorithm, specifically an in-place comparison sort. It has O(n2) time complexity, making it inefficient on large lists, and generally performs worse than the similar insertion sort”.
*Note :

a) To find maximum of elements

b) To swap two elements

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3. Write a C program to sort a list of elements using the bubble sort algorithm. Go to the editor

Bubble Sort works by repeatedly swapping the adjacent elements if they are in wrong order.

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4. Write a C program to sort a list of elements using the insertion sort algorithm. Go to the editor

Insertion sort is a simple sorting algorithm that builds the final sorted array (or list) one item at a time. It is much less efficient on large lists than other algorithms such as quicksort, heapsort, or merge sort.

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5. Write a C program to sort a list of elements using the merge sort algorithm. Go to the editor

Merge sort is an O(n log n) comparison-based sorting algorithm. Most implementations produce a stable sort, which means that the implementation preserves the input order of equal elements in the sorted output.

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6. Write a C program to sort numbers using heap algorithm(MAX heap). Go to the editor

A sorting algorithm that works by first organizing the data to be sorted into a special type of binary tree called a heap.

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7. Write a C program to sort a list of elements using the quick sort algorithm. Go to the editor

Quick sort is a comparison sort, meaning that it can sort items of any type for which a "less-than" relation (formally, a total order) is defined.

Note:
Read n values into array and Sort using Quick Sort

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8. Write a C program to sort a list of elements using the radix sort algorithm. Go to the editor

Radix sort is a non-comparative integer sorting algorithm that sorts data with integer keys by grouping keys by the individual digits which share the same significant position and value.

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9. Write a C Program for counting sort. Go to the editor

According to Wikipedia “In computer science, counting sort is an algorithm for sorting a collection of objects according to keys that are small integers; that is, it is an integer sorting algorithm. It operates by counting the number of objects that have each distinct key value, and using arithmetic on those counts to determine the positions of each key value in the output sequence. Its running time is linear in the number of items and the difference between the maximum and minimum key values, so it is only suitable for direct use in situations where the variation in keys is not significantly greater than the number of items. However, it is often used as a subroutine in another sorting algorithm, radix sort, that can handle larger keys more efficiently”.

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10. Write a C program to display sorted list using Gnome sort. Go to the editor

Gnome sort is a sorting algorithm originally proposed by Dr. Hamid Sarbazi-Azad (Professor of Computer Engineering at Sharif University of Technology) in 2000 and called "stupid sort" (not to be confused with bogosort), and then later on described by Dick Grune and named "gnome sort".
The algorithm always finds the first place where two adjacent elements are in the wrong order, and swaps them. It takes advantage of the fact that performing a swap can introduce a new out-of-order adjacent pair only next to the two swapped elements.

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11. Write a C program that sort numbers using shell sorting method. Go to the editor

According to Wikipedia "Shell sort or Shell's method, is an in-place comparison sort. It can be seen as either a generalization of sorting by exchange (bubble sort) or sorting by insertion (insertion sort). The method starts by sorting pairs of elements far apart from each other, then progressively reducing the gap between elements to be compared. Starting with far apart elements can move some out-of-place elements into position faster than a simple nearest neighbor exchange."

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12. Write a C program that sort numbers using QuickSort method. Go to the editor

Note: According to Wikipedia "Quicksort is a comparison sort, meaning that it can sort items of any type for which a "less-than" relation (formally, a total order) is defined. Inefficient implementations it is not a stable sort, meaning that the relative order of equal sort items is not preserved. Quicksort can operate in-place on an array, requiring small additional amounts of memory to perform the sorting."

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13. Write a C program that sort numbers using Bead Sort method. Go to the editor

According to Wikipedia "Bead sort, also called gravity sort, is a natural sorting algorithm, developed by Joshua J. Arulanandham, Cristian S. Calude and Michael J. Dinneen in 2002, and published in The Bulletin of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science. Both digital and analog hardware implementations of bead sort can achieve a sorting time of O(n); however, the implementation of this algorithm tends to be significantly slower in software and can only be used to sort lists of positive integers. Also, it would seem that even in the best case, the algorithm requires O(n2) space".

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14. Write a C program that sort numbers using Bogo Sort method. Go to the editor

In computer science, Bogo Sort is a particularly ineffective sorting algorithm based on the generate and test paradigm. The algorithm successively generates permutations of its input until it finds one that is sorted. It is not useful for sorting but may be used for educational purposes, to contrast it with other more realistic algorithms.

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15. Write a C program that sort numbers using Cocktail Sort method. Go to the editor

Cocktail shaker sort (also known as bidirectional bubble sort, cocktail sort, shaker sort, ripple sort, shuffle sort, or shuttle sort ) is a variation of bubble sort that is both a stable sorting algorithm and a comparison sort. The algorithm differs from a bubble sort in that it sorts in both directions on each pass through the list. This sorting algorithm is only marginally more difficult to implement than a bubble sort and solves the problem of turtles in bubble sorts. It provides only marginal performance improvements, and does not improve asymptotic performance; like the bubble sort, it is not of practical interest, though it finds some use in education.

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16. Write a C program that sort numbers using Cycle sort method. Go to the editor

Cycle sort is an in-place, unstable sorting algorithm, a comparison sort that is theoretically optimal in terms of the total number of writes to the original array, unlike any other in-place sorting algorithm. It is based on the idea that the permutation to be sorted can be factored into cycles, which can individually be rotated to give a sorted result.

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17. Write a C program that sort numbers using Permutation Sort method. Go to the editor

Permutation sort, proceeds by generating the possible permutations of the input array/list until discovering the sorted one.

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