# Python Data Types: Dictionary - Exercises, Practice, Solution

## Python Dictionary [ 80 exercises with solution]

Python dictionary is a container of the unordered set of objects like lists. The objects are surrounded by curly braces { }. The items in a dictionary are a comma-separated list of key:value pairs where keys and values are Python data type.

You may read our Python dictionary tutorial before solving the following exercises.

[An editor is available at the bottom of the page to write and execute the scripts.]

1. Write a Python script to sort (ascending and descending) a dictionary by value. Go to the editor

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2. Write a Python script to add a key to a dictionary. Go to the editor

Sample Dictionary : {0: 10, 1: 20}
Expected Result : {0: 10, 1: 20, 2: 30}

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3. Write a Python script to concatenate following dictionaries to create a new one. Go to the editor

Sample Dictionary :
dic1={1:10, 2:20}
dic2={3:30, 4:40}
dic3={5:50,6:60}
Expected Result : {1: 10, 2: 20, 3: 30, 4: 40, 5: 50, 6: 60}

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4. Write a Python script to check whether a given key already exists in a dictionary. Go to the editor

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5. Write a Python program to iterate over dictionaries using for loops. Go to the editor

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6. Write a Python script to generate and print a dictionary that contains a number (between 1 and n) in the form (x, x*x). Go to the editor
Sample Dictionary ( n = 5) :
Expected Output : {1: 1, 2: 4, 3: 9, 4: 16, 5: 25}
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7. Write a Python script to print a dictionary where the keys are numbers between 1 and 15 (both included) and the values are square of keys. Go to the editor
Sample Dictionary
{1: 1, 2: 4, 3: 9, 4: 16, 5: 25, 6: 36, 7: 49, 8: 64, 9: 81, 10: 100, 11: 121, 12: 144, 13: 169, 14: 196, 15: 225}
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8. Write a Python script to merge two Python dictionaries. Go to the editor
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9. Write a Python program to iterate over dictionaries using for loops. Go to the editor
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10. Write a Python program to sum all the items in a dictionary. Go to the editor
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11. Write a Python program to multiply all the items in a dictionary. Go to the editor
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12. Write a Python program to remove a key from a dictionary. Go to the editor
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13. Write a Python program to map two lists into a dictionary. Go to the editor
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14. Write a Python program to sort a given dictionary by key. Go to the editor
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15. Write a Python program to get the maximum and minimum value in a dictionary. Go to the editor
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16. Write a Python program to get a dictionary from an object's fields. Go to the editor
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17. Write a Python program to remove duplicates from Dictionary. Go to the editor
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18. Write a Python program to check a dictionary is empty or not. Go to the editor
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19. Write a Python program to combine two dictionary adding values for common keys. Go to the editor
d1 = {'a': 100, 'b': 200, 'c':300}
d2 = {'a': 300, 'b': 200, 'd':400}
Sample output: Counter({'a': 400, 'b': 400, 'd': 400, 'c': 300})
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20. Write a Python program to print all unique values in a dictionary. Go to the editor
Sample Data : [{"V":"S001"}, {"V": "S002"}, {"VI": "S001"}, {"VI": "S005"}, {"VII":"S005"}, {"V":"S009"},{"VIII":"S007"}]
Expected Output : Unique Values: {'S005', 'S002', 'S007', 'S001', 'S009'}
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21. Write a Python program to create and display all combinations of letters, selecting each letter from a different key in a dictionary. Go to the editor
Sample data : {'1':['a','b'], '2':['c','d']}
Expected Output:
ac
bc
bd
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22. Write a Python program to find the highest 3 values of corresponding keys in a dictionary. Go to the editor
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23. Write a Python program to combine values in python list of dictionaries. Go to the editor
Sample data: [{'item': 'item1', 'amount': 400}, {'item': 'item2', 'amount': 300}, {'item': 'item1', 'amount': 750}]
Expected Output: Counter({'item1': 1150, 'item2': 300})
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24. Write a Python program to create a dictionary from a string. Go to the editor
Note: Track the count of the letters from the string.
Sample string : 'w3resource'
Expected output: {'w': 1, '3': 1, 'r': 2, 'e': 2, 's': 1, 'o': 1, 'u': 1, 'c': 1}
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25. Write a Python program to print a dictionary in table format. Go to the editor
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26. Write a Python program to count the values associated with key in a dictionary. Go to the editor
Expected Output:
6
2
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27. Write a Python program to convert a list into a nested dictionary of keys. Go to the editor
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28. Write a Python program to sort a list alphabetically in a dictionary. Go to the editor
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29. Write a Python program to remove spaces from dictionary keys. Go to the editor
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30. Write a Python program to get the top three items in a shop. Go to the editor
Sample data: {'item1': 45.50, 'item2':35, 'item3': 41.30, 'item4':55, 'item5': 24}
Expected Output:
item4 55
item1 45.5
item3 41.3
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31. Write a Python program to get the key, value and item in a dictionary. Go to the editor
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32. Write a Python program to print a dictionary line by line. Go to the editor
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33. Write a Python program to check multiple keys exists in a dictionary. Go to the editor
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34. Write a Python program to count number of items in a dictionary value that is a list. Go to the editor
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35. Write a Python program to sort Counter by value. Go to the editor
Sample data : {'Math':81, 'Physics':83, 'Chemistry':87}
Expected data: [('Chemistry', 87), ('Physics', 83), ('Math', 81)]
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36. Write a Python program to create a dictionary from two lists without losing duplicate values. Go to the editor
Sample lists: ['Class-V', 'Class-VI', 'Class-VII', 'Class-VIII'], [1, 2, 2, 3]
Expected Output: defaultdict(<class 'set'>, {'Class-V': {1}, 'Class-VI': {2}, 'Class-VII': {2}, 'Class-VIII': {3}})
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37. Write a Python program to replace dictionary values with their average. Go to the editor
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38. Write a Python program to match key values in two dictionaries. Go to the editor
Sample dictionary: {'key1': 1, 'key2': 3, 'key3': 2}, {'key1': 1, 'key2': 2}
Expected output: key1: 1 is present in both x and y
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39. Write a Python program to store a given dictionary in a json file. Go to the editor
Original dictionary:
{'students': [{'firstName': 'Nikki', 'lastName': 'Roysden'}, {'firstName': 'Mervin', 'lastName': 'Friedland'}, {'firstName': 'Aron ', 'lastName': 'Wilkins'}], 'teachers': [{'firstName': 'Amberly', 'lastName': 'Calico'}, {'firstName': 'Regine', 'lastName': 'Agtarap'}]}
<class 'dict'>
Json file to dictionary:
{'students': [{'firstName': 'Nikki', 'lastName': 'Roysden'}, {'firstName': 'Mervin', 'lastName': 'Friedland'}, {'firstName': 'Aron ', 'lastName': 'Wilkins'}], 'teachers': [{'firstName': 'Amberly', 'lastName': 'Calico'}, {'firstName': 'Regine', 'lastName': 'Agtarap'}]}
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40. Write a Python program to create a dictionary of keys x, y, and z where each key has as value a list from 11-20, 21-30, and 31-40 respectively. Access the fifth value of each key from the dictionary. Go to the editor
{'x': [11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19],
'y': [21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29],
'z': [31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39]}
15
25
35
x has value [11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19]
y has value [21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29]
z has value [31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39]
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41. Write a Python program to drop empty Items from a given Dictionary. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
{'c1': 'Red', 'c2': 'Green', 'c3': None}
New Dictionary after dropping empty items:
{'c1': 'Red', 'c2': 'Green'}
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42. Write a Python program to filter a dictionary based on values. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
{'Cierra Vega': 175, 'Alden Cantrell': 180, 'Kierra Gentry': 165, 'Pierre Cox': 190}
Marks greater than 170:
{'Cierra Vega': 175, 'Alden Cantrell': 180, 'Pierre Cox': 190}
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43. Write a Python program to convert more than one list to nested dictionary. Go to the editor
Original strings:
['S001', 'S002', 'S003', 'S004']
['Adina Park', 'Leyton Marsh', 'Duncan Boyle', 'Saim Richards']
[85, 98, 89, 92]
Nested dictionary:
[{'S001': {'Adina Park': 85}}, {'S002': {'Leyton Marsh': 98}}, {'S003': {'Duncan Boyle': 89}}, {'S004': {'Saim Richards': 92}}]
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44. Write a Python program to filter the height and width of students, which are stored in a dictionary. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
{'Cierra Vega': (6.2, 70), 'Alden Cantrell': (5.9, 65), 'Kierra Gentry': (6.0, 68), 'Pierre Cox': (5.8, 66)}
Height > 6ft and Weight> 70kg:
{'Cierra Vega': (6.2, 70)}
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45. Write a Python program to check all values are same in a dictionary. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
{'Cierra Vega': 12, 'Alden Cantrell': 12, 'Kierra Gentry': 12, 'Pierre Cox': 12}
Check all are 12 in the dictionary.
True
Check all are 10 in the dictionary.
False
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46. Write a Python program to create a dictionary grouping a sequence of key-value pairs into a dictionary of lists. Go to the editor
Original list:
[('yellow', 1), ('blue', 2), ('yellow', 3), ('blue', 4), ('red', 1)]
Grouping a sequence of key-value pairs into a dictionary of lists:
{'yellow': [1, 3], 'blue': [2, 4], 'red': [1]}
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47. Write a Python program to split a given dictionary of lists into list of dictionaries. Go to the editor
Original dictionary of lists:
{'Science': [88, 89, 62, 95], 'Language': [77, 78, 84, 80]}
Split said dictionary of lists into list of dictionaries:
[{'Science': 88, 'Language': 77}, {'Science': 89, 'Language': 78}, {'Science': 62, 'Language': 84}, {'Science': 95, 'Language': 80}]
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48. Write a Python program to remove a specified dictionary from a given list. Go to the editor
Original list of dictionary:
[{'id': '#FF0000', 'color': 'Red'}, {'id': '#800000', 'color': 'Maroon'}, {'id': '#FFFF00', 'color': 'Yellow'}, {'id': '#808000', 'color': 'Olive'}]
Remove id #FF0000 from the said list of dictionary:
[{'id': '#800000', 'color': 'Maroon'}, {'id': '#FFFF00', 'color': 'Yellow'}, {'id': '#808000', 'color': 'Olive'}]
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49. Write a Python program to convert string values of a given dictionary, into integer/float datatypes. Go to the editor
Original list:
[{'x': '10', 'y': '20', 'z': '30'}, {'p': '40', 'q': '50', 'r': '60'}]
String values of a given dictionary, into integer types:
[{'x': 10, 'y': 20, 'z': 30}, {'p': 40, 'q': 50, 'r': 60}]
Original list:
[{'x': '10.12', 'y': '20.23', 'z': '30'}, {'p': '40.00', 'q': '50.19', 'r': '60.99'}]
String values of a given dictionary, into float types:
[{'x': 10.12, 'y': 20.23, 'z': 30.0}, {'p': 40.0, 'q': 50.19, 'r': 60.99}]
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50. A Python Dictionary contains List as value. Write a Python program to clear the list values in the said dictionary. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
{'C1': [10, 20, 30], 'C2': [20, 30, 40], 'C3': [12, 34]}
Clear the list values in the said dictionary:
{'C1': [], 'C2': [], 'C3': []}
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51. A Python Dictionary contains List as value. Write a Python program to update the list values in the said dictionary. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
{'Math': [88, 89, 90], 'Physics': [92, 94, 89], 'Chemistry': [90, 87, 93]}
Update the list values of the said dictionary:
{'Math': [89, 90, 91], 'Physics': [90, 92, 87], 'Chemistry': [90, 87, 93]}
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52. Write a Python program to extract a list of values from a given list of dictionaries. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
[{'Math': 90, 'Science': 92}, {'Math': 89, 'Science': 94}, {'Math': 92, 'Science': 88}]
Extract a list of values from said list of dictionaries where subject = Science
[92, 94, 88]
Original Dictionary:
[{'Math': 90, 'Science': 92}, {'Math': 89, 'Science': 94}, {'Math': 92, 'Science': 88}]
Extract a list of values from said list of dictionaries where subject = Math
[90, 89, 92]
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53. Write a Python program to find the length of a given dictionary values. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
{1: 'red', 2: 'green', 3: 'black', 4: 'white', 5: 'black'}
Length of dictionary values:
{'red': 3, 'green': 5, 'black': 5, 'white': 5}
Original Dictionary:
{'1': 'Austin Little', '2': 'Natasha Howard', '3': 'Alfred Mullins', '4': 'Jamie Rowe'}
Length of dictionary values:
{'Austin Little': 13, 'Natasha Howard': 14, 'Alfred Mullins': 14, 'Jamie Rowe': 10}
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54. Write a Python program to get the depth of a dictionary. Go to the editor
Expected Output:
4
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55. Write a Python program to access dictionary key's element by index. Go to the editor
Expected Output:
physics
math
chemistry
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56. Write a Python program to convert a given dictionary into a list of lists. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
{1: 'red', 2: 'green', 3: 'black', 4: 'white', 5: 'black'}
Convert the said dictionary into a list of lists:
[[1, 'red'], [2, 'green'], [3, 'black'], [4, 'white'], [5, 'black']]
Original Dictionary:
{'1': 'Austin Little', '2': 'Natasha Howard', '3': 'Alfred Mullins', '4': 'Jamie Rowe'}
Convert the said dictionary into a list of lists:
[['1', 'Austin Little'], ['2', 'Natasha Howard'], ['3', 'Alfred Mullins'], ['4', 'Jamie Rowe']]
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57. Write a Python program to filter even numbers from a given dictionary values. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
{'V': [1, 4, 6, 10], 'VI': [1, 4, 12], 'VII': [1, 3, 8]}
Filter even numbers from said dictionary values:
{'V': [4, 6, 10], 'VI': [4, 12], 'VII': [8]}
Original Dictionary:
{'V': [1, 3, 5], 'VI': [1, 5], 'VII': [2, 7, 9]}
Filter even numbers from said dictionary values:
{'V': [], 'VI': [], 'VII': [2]}
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58. Write a Python program to get all combinations of key-value pairs in a given dictionary. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
{'V': [1, 4, 6, 10], 'VI': [1, 4, 12], 'VII': [1, 3, 8]}
Combinations of key-value pairs of the said dictionary:
[{'V': [1, 4, 6, 10], 'VI': [1, 4, 12]}, {'V': [1, 4, 6, 10], 'VII': [1, 3, 8]}, {'VI': [1, 4, 12], 'VII': [1, 3, 8]}]
Original Dictionary:
{'V': [1, 3, 5], 'VI': [1, 5]}
Combinations of key-value pairs of the said dictionary:
[{'V': [1, 3, 5], 'VI': [1, 5]}]
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59. Write a Python program to find the specified number of maximum values in a given dictionary. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
{'a': 5, 'b': 14, 'c': 32, 'd': 35, 'e': 24, 'f': 100, 'g': 57, 'h': 8, 'i': 100}
1 maximum value(s) in the said dictionary:
['f']
2 maximum value(s) in the said dictionary:
['f', 'i']
5 maximum value(s) in the said dictionary:
['f', 'i', 'g', 'd', 'c']
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60. Write a Python program to find shortest list of values with the keys in a given dictionary. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary: {'V': [10, 12], 'VI': [10], 'VII': [10, 20, 30, 40], 'VIII': [20], 'IX': [10, 30, 50, 70], 'X': [80]} Shortest list of values with the keys of the said dictionary: ['VI', 'VIII', 'X']
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61. Write a Python program to count the frequency in a given dictionary. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
{'V': 10, 'VI': 10, 'VII': 40, 'VIII': 20, 'IX': 70, 'X': 80, 'XI': 40, 'XII': 20}
Count the frequency of the said dictionary:
Counter({10: 2, 40: 2, 20: 2, 70: 1, 80: 1})
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62. Write a Python program to extract values from a given dictionaries and create a list of lists from those values. Go to the editor
Original Dictionary:
[{'student_id': 1, 'name': 'Jean Castro', 'class': 'V'}, {'student_id': 2, 'name': 'Lula Powell', 'class': 'V'}, {'student_id': 3, 'name': 'Brian Howell', 'class': 'VI'}, {'student_id': 4, 'name': 'Lynne Foster', 'class': 'VI'}, {'student_id': 5, 'name': 'Zachary Simon', 'class': 'VII'}]
Extract values from the said dictionarie and create a list of lists using those values:
[[1, 'Jean Castro', 'V'], [2, 'Lula Powell', 'V'], [3, 'Brian Howell', 'VI'], [4, 'Lynne Foster', 'VI'], [5, 'Zachary Simon', 'VII']]
[[1, 'Jean Castro'], [2, 'Lula Powell'], [3, 'Brian Howell'], [4, 'Lynne Foster'], [5, 'Zachary Simon']]
[['Jean Castro', 'V'], ['Lula Powell', 'V'], ['Brian Howell', 'VI'], ['Lynne Foster', 'VI'], ['Zachary Simon', 'VII']]
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63. Write a Python program to convert a given list of lists to a dictionary. Go to the editor
Original list of lists:
[[1, 'Jean Castro', 'V'], [2, 'Lula Powell', 'V'], [3, 'Brian Howell', 'VI'], [4, 'Lynne Foster', 'VI'], [5, 'Zachary Simon', 'VII']]
Convert the said list of lists to a dictionary:
{1: ['Jean Castro', 'V'], 2: ['Lula Powell', 'V'], 3: ['Brian Howell', 'VI'], 4: ['Lynne Foster', 'VI'], 5: ['Zachary Simon', 'VII']}
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64. Write a Python program to create a key-value list pairings in a given dictionary. Go to the editor
Original dictionary:
{1: ['Jean Castro'], 2: ['Lula Powell'], 3: ['Brian Howell'], 4: ['Lynne Foster'], 5: ['Zachary Simon']}
A key-value list pairings of the said dictionary:
[{1: 'Jean Castro', 2: 'Lula Powell', 3: 'Brian Howell', 4: 'Lynne Foster', 5: 'Zachary Simon'}]
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65. Write a Python program to get the total length of all values of a given dictionary with string values. Go to the editor
Original dictionary:
{'#FF0000': 'Red', '#800000': 'Maroon', '#FFFF00': 'Yellow', '#808000': 'Olive'}
Total length of all values of the said dictionary with string values:
20
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66. Write a Python program to check if a specific Key and a value exist in a dictionary. Go to the editor
Original dictionary:
[{'student_id': 1, 'name': 'Jean Castro', 'class': 'V'}, {'student_id': 2, 'name': 'Lula Powell', 'class': 'V'}, {'student_id': 3, 'name': 'Brian Howell', 'class': 'VI'}, {'student_id': 4, 'name': 'Lynne Foster', 'class': 'VI'}, {'student_id': 5, 'name': 'Zachary Simon', 'class': 'VII'}]
Check if a specific Key and a value exist in the said dictionary:
True
True
True
False
False
False
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67. Write a Python program to invert a given dictionary with non-unique hashable values. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
{8: ['Ora Mckinney', 'Mathew Gilbert'], 7: ['Theodore Hollandl', 'Mae Fleming', 'Ivan Little']}
Click me to see the sample solution

68. Write a Python program to combines two or more dictionaries, creating a list of values for each key. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
Original dictionaries:
{'w': 50, 'x': 100, 'y': 'Green', 'z': 400}
{'x': 300, 'y': 'Red', 'z': 600}
Combined dictionaries, creating a list of values for each key:
{'w': [50], 'x': [100, 300], 'y': ['Green', 'Red'], 'z': [400, 600]}
Click me to see the sample solution

69. Write a Python program to group the elements of a given list based on the given function. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
Original list & function:
[7, 23, 3.2, 3.3, 8.4] Function name: floor:
Group the elements of the said list based on the given function:
{7: [7], 23: [23], 3: [3.2, 3.3], 8: [8.4]}
Original list & function:
['Red', 'Green', 'Black', 'White', 'Pink'] Function name: len:
Group the elements of the said list based on the given function:
{3: ['Red'], 5: ['Green', 'Black', 'White'], 4: ['Pink']}
Click me to see the sample solution

70. Write a Python program to map the values of a given list to a dictionary using a function, where the key-value pairs consist of the original value as the key and the result of the function as the value. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
{1: 1, 2: 4, 3: 9, 4: 16}
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71. Write a Python program to retrieve the value of the nested key indicated by the given selector list from a dictionary or list. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
Russell
2
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72. Write a Python program to invert a dictionary with unique hashable values. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
{10: 'Theodore', 11: 'Mathew', 9: 'Roxanne'}
Click me to see the sample solution

73. Write a Python program to convert a list of dictionaries into a list of values corresponding to the specified key. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
Original list of dictionaries:
[{'name': 'Theodore', 'age': 18}, {'name': 'Mathew', 'age': 22}, {'name': 'Roxanne', 'age': 20}, {'name': 'David', 'age': 18}]
Convert a list of dictionaries into a list of values corresponding to the specified key:
[18, 22, 20, 18]
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74. Write a Python program to create a dictionary with the same keys as the given dictionary and values generated by running the given function for each value. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
Original dictionary elements:
{'Theodore': {'user': 'Theodore', 'age': 45}, 'Roxanne': {'user': 'Roxanne', 'age': 15}, 'Mathew': {'user': 'Mathew', 'age': 21}}
Dictionary with the same keys:
{'Theodore': 45, 'Roxanne': 15, 'Mathew': 21}
Click me to see the sample solution

75. Write a Python program to find all keys in the provided dictionary that have the given value. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
Original dictionary elements:
{'Theodore': 19, 'Roxanne': 20, 'Mathew': 21, 'Betty': 20}
Find all keys in the said dictionary that have the specified value:
['Roxanne', 'Betty']
Click me to see the sample solution

76. Write a Python program to combine two lists into a dictionary, where the elements of the first one serve as the keys and the elements of the second one serve as the values. The values of the first list need to be unique and hashable. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
Original lists:
['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f']
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
Combine the values of the said two lists into a dictionary:
{'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3, 'd': 4, 'e': 5}
Click me to see the sample solution

77. Write a Python program to convert given a dictionary to a list of tuples. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
Original Dictionary:
{'Red': 1, 'Green': 3, 'White': 5, 'Black': 2, 'Pink': 4}
Convert the said dictionary to a list of tuples:
[('Red', 1), ('Green', 3), ('White', 5), ('Black', 2), ('Pink', 4)]
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78. Write a Python program to create a flat list of all the keys in a flat dictionary. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
Original dictionary elements:
{'Theodore': 19, 'Roxanne': 20, 'Mathew': 21, 'Betty': 20}
Create a flat list of all the keys of the said flat dictionary:
['Theodore', 'Roxanne', 'Mathew', 'Betty']
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79. Write a Python program to create a flat list of all the values in a flat dictionary. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
Original dictionary elements:
{'Theodore': 19, 'Roxanne': 20, 'Mathew': 21, 'Betty': 20}
Create a flat list of all the values of the said flat dictionary:
[19, 20, 21, 20]
Click me to see the sample solution

80. Write a Python program to find the key of the maximum value in a dictionary. Go to the editor
Sample Output:
Original dictionary elements:
{'Theodore': 19, 'Roxanne': 22, 'Mathew': 21, 'Betty': 20}
Finds the key of the maximum and minimum value of the said dictionary:
('Roxanne', 'Theodore')
Click me to see the sample solution

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## Python: Tips of the Day

Understanding slice notation:

It's pretty simple really:

```a[start:stop]  # items start through stop-1
a[start:]      # items start through the rest of the array
a[:stop]       # items from the beginning through stop-1
a[:]           # a copy of the whole array
```

There is also the step value, which can be used with any of the above:

```a[start:stop:step] # start through not past stop, by step
```

The key point to remember is that the :stop value represents the first value that is not in the selected slice. So, the difference between stop and start is the number of elements selected (if step is 1, the default).

The other feature is that start or stop may be a negative number, which means it counts from the end of the array instead of the beginning. So:

```a[-1]    # last item in the array
a[-2:]   # last two items in the array
a[:-2]   # everything except the last two items
```

Similarly, step may be a negative number:

```a[::-1]    # all items in the array, reversed
a[1::-1]   # the first two items, reversed
a[:-3:-1]  # the last two items, reversed
a[-3::-1]  # everything except the last two items, reversed
```

Python is kind to the programmer if there are fewer items than you ask for. For example, if you ask for a[:-2] and a only contains one element, you get an empty list instead of an error. Sometimes you would prefer the error, so you have to be aware that this may happen.

Relation to slice() object

The slicing operator [] is actually being used in the above code with a slice() object using the : notation (which is only valid within []), i.e.:

```a[start:stop:step]
```

is equivalent to:

```a[slice(start, stop, step)]
```

Slice objects also behave slightly differently depending on the number of arguments, similarly to range(), i.e. both slice(stop) and slice(start, stop[, step]) are supported. To skip specifying a given argument, one might use None, so that e.g. a[start:] is equivalent to a[slice(start, None)] or a[::-1] is equivalent to a[slice(None, None, -1)].

While the : -based notation is very helpful for simple slicing, the explicit use of slice() objects simplifies the programmatic generation of slicing.

Ref: https://bit.ly/2MHaTp7