# Python Math: - Exercises, Practice, Solution

## Python Math [81 exercises with solution]

[*An editor is available at the bottom of the page to write and execute the scripts.*]

**1.** Write a Python program to convert degree to radian. Go to the editor

Note : The radian is the standard unit of angular measure, used in many areas of mathematics. An angle's measurement in radians is numerically equal to the length of a corresponding arc of a unit circle; one radian is just under 57.3 degrees (when the arc length is equal to the radius).

*Test Data:*

Degree : 15

Expected Result in radians: 0.2619047619047619

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**2.** Write a Python program to convert radian to degree. Go to the editor

*Test Data:*

Radian : .52

Expected Result : 29.781818181818185

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**3.** Write a Python program to calculate the area of a trapezoid. Go to the editor

Note : A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with two sides parallel. The trapezoid is equivalent to the British definition of the trapezium. An isosceles trapezoid is a trapezoid in which the base angles are equal so.

*Test Data:*

Height : 5

Base, first value : 5

Base, second value : 6

Expected Output: Area is : 27.5

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**4.** Write a Python program to calculate the area of a parallelogram. Go to the editor

Note : A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel (and therefore opposite angles equal). A quadrilateral with equal sides is called a rhombus, and a parallelogram whose angles are all right angles is called a rectangle.

*Test Data:*

Length of base : 5

Height of parallelogram : 6

Expected Output: Area is : 30.0

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**5.** Write a Python program to calculate surface volume and area of a cylinder. Go to the editor

Note: A cylinder is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes, the surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given straight line, the axis of the cylinder.

*Test Data:*

volume : Height (4), Radius(6)

Expected Output:

Volume is : 452.57142857142856

Surface Area is : 377.1428571428571

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**6.** Write a Python program to calculate surface volume and area of a sphere. Go to the editor

Note: A sphere is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball.

*Test Data:*

Radius of sphere : .75

Expected Output :

Surface Area is : 7.071428571428571

Volume is : 1.7678571428571428

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**7.** Write a Python program to calculate arc length of an angle. Go to the editor

Note: In a planar geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. Angles formed by two rays lie in a plane, but this plane does not have to be a Euclidean plane.

*Test Data:*

Diameter of a circle : 8

Angle measure : 45

Expected Output :

Arc Length is : 3.142857142857143

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**8.** Write a Python program to calculate the area of the sector. Go to the editor

Note: A circular sector or circle sector, is the portion of a disk enclosed by two radii and an arc, where the smaller area is known as the minor sector and the larger being the major sector.

*Test Data:*

Radius of a circle : 4

Angle measure : 45

Expected Output:

Sector Area: 6.285714285714286

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**9.** Write a Python program to calculate the discriminant value. Go to the editor

Note: The discriminant is the name given to the expression that appears under the square root (radical) sign in the quadratic formula.

*Test Data:*

The x value : 4

The y value : 0

The z value : -4

Expected Output:

Two Solutions. Discriminant value is : 64.0

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**10.** Write a Python program to find the smallest multiple of the first n numbers. Also, display the factors. Go to the editor

*Test Data:*

If n = (13)

Expected Output :

[13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7]

360360

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**11.** Write a Python program to calculate the difference between the squared sum of first n natural numbers and the sum of squared first n natural numbers.(default value of number=2). Go to the editor

*Test Data:*

If sum_difference(12)

Expected Output :

5434

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**12.** Write a Python program to calculate the sum of all digits of the base to the specified power. Go to the editor

*Test Data:*

If power_base_sum(2, 100)

Expected Output :

115

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**13.** Write a Python program to find out, if the given number is abundant. Go to the editor

Note: In number theory, an abundant number or excessive number is a number for which the sum of its proper divisors is greater than the number itself. The integer 12 is the first abundant number. Its proper divisors are 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 for a total of 16.

*Test Data:*

If is_abundant(12)

If is_abundant(13)

Expected Output:

True

False

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**14.** Write a Python program to sum all amicable numbers from 1 to specified numbers. Go to the editor

Note: Amicable numbers are two different numbers so related that the sum of the proper divisors of each is equal to the other number. (A proper divisor of a number is a positive factor of that number other than the number itself. For example, the proper divisors of 6 are 1, 2, and 3.)

*Test Data:*

If amicable_numbers_sum(9999)

If amicable_numbers_sum(999)

If amicable_numbers_sum(99)

Expected Output:

31626

504

0

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**15.** Write a Python program to returns sum of all divisors of a number. Go to the editor

*Test Data:*

If number = 8

If number = 12

Expected Output:

7

16

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**16.** Write a Python program to print all permutations of a given string (including duplicates). Go to the editor

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**17.** Write a Python program to print the first n Lucky Numbers. Go to the editor

Lucky numbers are defined via a sieve as follows.

Begin with a list of integers starting with 1 :

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, . . . .

Now eliminate every second number :

1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, ...

The second remaining number is 3, so remove every 3rd number:

1, 3, 7, 9, 13, 15, 19, 21, 25, ...

The next remaining number is 7, so remove every 7th number:

1, 3, 7, 9, 13, 15, 21, 25, ...

Next, remove every 9th number and so on.

Finally, the resulting sequence is the lucky numbers.

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**18.** Write a Python program to computing square roots using the Babylonian method. Go to the editor

Perhaps the first algorithm used for approximating √S is known as the Babylonian method, named after the Babylonians, or "Hero's method", named after the first-century Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria who gave the first explicit description of the method. It can be derived from (but predates by 16 centuries) Newton's method. The basic idea is that if x is an overestimate to the square root of a non-negative real number S then S / x will be an underestimate and so the average of these two numbers may reasonably be expected to provide a better approximation.

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**19.** Write a Python program to multiply two integers without using the * operator in python. Go to the editor

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**20.** Write a Python program to calculate magic square. Go to the editor

A magic square is an arrangement of distinct numbers (i.e., each number is used once), usually integers, in a square grid, where the numbers in each row, and in each column, and the numbers in the main and secondary diagonals, all add up to the same number, called the "magic constant." A magic square has the same number of rows as it has columns, and in conventional math notation, "n" stands for the number of rows (and columns) it has. Thus, a magic square always contains n2 numbers, and its size (the number of rows [and columns] it has) is described as being "of order n".

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**21.** Write a Python program to print all primes (Sieve_of_Eratosthenes) smaller than or equal to a specified number. Go to the editor

In mathematics, the sieve of Eratosthenes, one of a number of prime number sieves, is a simple, ancient algorithm for finding all prime numbers up to any given limit. It does so by iteratively marking as composite (i.e., not prime) the multiples of each prime, starting with the multiples of 2.

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**22.** Write a python program to find the next smallest palindrome of a specified number. Go to the editor

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**23.** Write a python program to find the next previous palindrome of a specified number. Go to the editor

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**24.** Write a Python program to convert a float to ratio. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

21/5

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**25.** Write a Python program for nth Catalan Number. Go to the editor

In combinatorial mathematics, the Catalan numbers form a sequence of natural numbers that occur in various counting problems, often involving recursively-defined objects. They are named after the Belgian mathematician Eugène Charles Catalan (1814 –1894).

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**26.** Write a Python program to print number with commas as thousands separators(from right side). Go to the editor

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**27.** Write a Python program to calculate the distance between two points using latitude and longitude. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Input coordinates of two points: Starting latitude: 23.5 Ending longitude: 67.5 Starting latitude: 25.3 Ending longitude: 69.5 The distance is 284.73km.

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**28.** Write a Python program to calculate the area of regular polygon. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Input number of sides: 4 Input the length of a side: 25 The area of the polygon is: 625.0000000000001

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**29.** Write a Python program to calculate wind chill index. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Input wind speed in kilometers/hour: 150 Input air temperature in degrees Celsius: 29 The wind chill index is 31

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**30.** Write a Python program to find the roots of a quadratic function. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Quadratic function : (a * x^2) + b*x + c a: 25 b: 64 c: 36 There are 2 roots: -0.834579 and -1.725421

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**31.** Write a Python program to convert a binary number to decimal number. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Input a binary number: 101011 The decimal value of the number is 43

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**32.** Write a Python program to print a complex number and its real and imaginary parts. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Complex Number: (2+3j) Complex Number - Real part: 2.0 Complex Number - Imaginary part: 3.0

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**33.** Write a Python program to add, subtract, multiply and division of two complex numbers. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Addition of two complex numbers : (7-4j) Subtraction of two complex numbers : (1+10j) Multiplication of two complex numbers : (33-19j) Division of two complex numbers : (-0.15517241379310348+0.6379310344827587j)

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**34.** Write a Python program to get the length and the angle of a complex number. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Length of a complex number: 5.0 Complex number Angle: 1.5707963267948966

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**35.** Write a Python program to convert Polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Polar Coordinates: (5.0, 0.9272952180016122) Polar to rectangular: (-2+2.4492935982947064e-16j)

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**36.** Write a Python program to find the maximum and minimum numbers from the specified decimal numbers. Go to the editor

Decimal numbers : 2.45, 2.69, 2.45, 3.45, 2.00, 0.04, 7.25

Expected Output :

Maximum: 7.25 Minimum: 0.04

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**37.** Write a Python program to find the sum of the following decimal numbers and display the numbers in sorted order. Go to the editor

Decimal numbers : 2.45, 2.69, 2.45, 3.45, 2.00, 0.04, 7.25

Expected Output :

Sum: 20.33 Sorted order: [Decimal('0.04'), Decimal('2.00'), Decimal('2.45'), Decimal('2.45' ), Decimal('2.69'), Decimal('3.45'), Decimal('7.25')]

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**38.** Write a Python program to get the square root and exponential of a given decimal number. Go to the editor

Decimal number : 1.44

Expected Output :

Square root of 1.44 is : 1.2 exponential of 1.44 is : 4.220695816996552825673328929

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**39.** Write a Python program to retrieve the current global context (public properties) for all decimal. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Emax = 999999 Emin = -999999 capitals = 1 prec = 28 rounding = ROUND_HALF_EVEN flags = <class 'decimal.InvalidOperation'>: False ........

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**40.** Write a Python program to round a specified decimal by setting precision (between 1 and 4). Go to the editor

Sample Number : 0.26598

Original Number : 0.26598

Precision- 1 : 0.3

Precision- 2 : 0.27

Precision- 3 : 0.266

Precision- 4 : 0.2660

Expected Output :

Original Number : 0.26598 Precision- 1 : 0.3 Precision- 2 : 0.27 Precision- 3 : 0.266 Precision- 4 : 0.2660

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**41.** Write a Python program to round a specified number upwards towards infinity and down towards negative infinity of precision 4. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

1/17 = 0.05882352941176470588235294118 Precision: 4 Round upwards towards infinity: 0.05883 Round down towards negative infinity: 0.05882

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**42.** Write a Python program to get the local and default precision. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Local precision: 2 22/7 = 3.1 Default precision: 28 22 /7 = 3.142857142857142857142857143

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**43.** Write a Python program to display the fraction instances of the string representation of a number. Go to the editor

Sample data : '0.7', '2.5', '9.32', '7e-1'

Expected Output :

0.7 = 7/10 2.5 = 5/2 9.32 = 233/25 7e-1 = 7/10

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**44.** Write a Python program to create the fraction instances of float numbers. Go to the editor

Sample numbers: 0.2, 0.7, 6.5, 6.0

Expected Output :

0.2 = 3602879701896397/18014398509481984 0.7 = 3152519739159347/4503599627370496 6.5 = 13/2 6.0 = 6

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**45.** Write a Python program to create the fraction instances of decimal numbers. Go to the editor

Sample decimal.2' number: Decimal('0), Decimal('0.7'), Decimal('2.5'), Decimal('3.0')

Expected Output :

0.2 = 1/5 0.7 = 7/10 2.5 = 5/2 3.0 = 3

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**46.** Write a Python program to add, subtract, multiply and divide two fractions. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

2/3 + 3/7 = 23/21 2/3 - 3/7 = 5/21 2/3 * 3/7 = 2/7 2/3 / 3/7 = 14/9

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**47.** Write a Python program to convert a floating point number (PI) to an approximate rational value on the various denominator. Go to the editor

Note: max_denominator=1000000

Expected Output :

PI = 3.141592653589793 No limit = 3141592653589793/1000000000000000 1 = 3 5 = 16/5 50 = 22/7 90 = 267/85 100 = 311/99 500 = 355/113 1000000 = 3126535/995207

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**48.** Write a Python program to generate random float numbers in a specific numerical range. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

2.036 36.572 36.557 98.051 37.290 77.583

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**49.** Write a Python program to generate random integers in a specific numerical range. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

24 12 72 13 56 80

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**50.** Write a Python program to generate random even integers in a specific numerical range. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

44 50 46 62 94 14

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**51.** Write a Python program to get a single random element from a specified string. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

h

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**52.** Write a Python program to shuffle the following elements randomly. Go to the editor

Sample elements : [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]

Expected Output :

[2, 1, 7, 5, 3, 4, 6]

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**53.** Write a Python program to flip a coin 1000 times and count heads and tails. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Heads: 5073 Tails: 4927

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**54.** Write a Python program to print a random sample of words from the system dictionary. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

cellophane's matter's Whiteley's airdrop's sulkiest whisper's downturns

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**55.** Write a Python program to randomly select an item from a list. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Red

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**56.** Write a Python program to calculate the absolute value of a floating point number. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

2.1 0.0 10.1 0.0

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**57.** Write a Python program to calculate the standard deviation of the following data. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Sample Data: [4, 2, 5, 8, 6] Standard Deviation : 2.23606797749979

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**58. ** Write a Python program to print the floating point from mantissa, exponent pair. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Mantissa Exponent Floating point value -------- -------- -------------------- 0.70 -3 0.09 0.30 0 0.30 0.50 3 4.00

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**59.** Write a Python program to split fractional and integer parts of a floating point number. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

(F) (I) 0/2 = 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 1/2 = 0.5 (0.5, 0.0) 2/2 = 1.0 (0.0, 1.0) 3/2 = 1.5 (0.5, 1.0) 4/2 = 2.0 (0.0, 2.0) 5/2 = 2.5 (0.5, 2.0)

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**60.** Write a Python program to parse math formulas and put parentheses around multiplication and division. Go to the editor

Sample data : 4+5*7/2

Expected Output :

4+((5*7)/2)

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**61.** Write a Python program to describe linear regression. Go to the editor

Note : A linear regression line has an equation of the form Y = a + bX, where X is the explanatory variable and Y is the dependent variable. The slope of the line is b, and a is the intercept (the value of y when x = 0).

Expected Output :

Enter the number of data points: 2 X1: 1 Y1: 2 X2: 3 Y2: 4 Best fit line: y = 1.0x + 1.0 Enter a value to calculate: 12 y = 13.0

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**62.** Write a Python program to calculate a grid of hexagon coordinates of the given radius given lower-left and upper-right coordinates. The function will return a list of lists containing 6 tuples of x, y point coordinates. These can be used to construct valid regular hexagonal polygons. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

[[(-5.0, -4.196152422706632), (-5.0, -0.7320508075688767), (-2.0, 1.0), (1.0, -0. 7320508075688767), (1.0, -4.196152422706632), (-2.0, -5.928203230275509), (-5.0, -4.196152422706632)], [(1.0, -4.196152422706632), (1.0, -0.7320508075688767), (4. 0, 1.0), (7.0, -0.7320508075688767), (7.0, -4.196152422706632).......

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**63.** Write a Python program to create a simple math quiz. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

************************ ** A Simple Math Quiz ** ************************ 1. Addition 2. Subtraction 3. Multiplication 4. Integer Division 5. Exit ------------------------ Enter your choice: 1 Enter your answer 1 + 5 = 6 Correct. ......... Your score is 100.0%. Thank you.

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**64.** Write a Python program to calculate the volume of a tetrahedron. Go to the editor

Note: In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners. The tetrahedron is the simplest of all the ordinary convex polyhedra and the only one that has fewer than 5 faces.

Expected Output :

117.85

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**65.** Write a Python program to compute the value of e(2.718281827...) using infinite series. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

The mathematical constant e 2.7182818282861687 2.718281828459045

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**66.** Write a Python program to create an ASCII waveform. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

# * # * ....... # *

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**67.** Write a Python program to create a dot string. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

. . . . . . . . . . .

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**68.** Write a Python program to create a Pythagorean theorem calculator. Go to the editor

Note : In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the square of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.

Expected Output :

Pythagorean theorem calculator! Calculate your triangle sides. Assume the sides are a, b, c and c is the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle Which side (a, b, c) do you wish to calculate? side>a Input the length of side b:10 Input the length of side c:20 The length of side a is 17.320508075688775

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**69.** Write a Python function to round up a number to specified digits. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Original Number: 123.01247 124 123.1 123.02 123.013

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**70.** Write a Python program for casino simulation. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Exp 0 Exp 1 Exp 2 Exp 3 Exp 4 ....... Exp 998 Exp 999 Average max amount earned 10493.144 with standard deviation 50.892644498001886

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**71.** Write a Python program to reverse a range. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

range(9, -1, -2) range(4, 0, -1)

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**72.** Write a Python program to create a range for floating numbers. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

[0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.30000000000000004, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6000000000000001, 0.700000000000 0001, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0] 01, 0.7000000000000001, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0]

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**73.** Write a Python program to generate (given an integer n) a square matrix filled with elements from 1 to n raised to the power of 2 in spiral order. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

[[1, 2, 3], [8, 9, 4], [7, 6, 5]]

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**74.** Write a Python program to select a random date in the current year. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

2016-02-08

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**75.** Write a Python program to calculate clusters using Hierarchical Clustering method. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

Input number of points.> 2 Input point (eg. 1,1)A> 1,2 Input point (eg. 1,1)B> 3,4 Distance matrix no.1: [0.0, 2.83] [2.83, 0.0] Cluster is : [AB]

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**76.** Write a Python program to implement Euclidean Algorithm to compute the greatest common divisor (gcd). Go to the editor

Expected Output :

304 = 2 * 150 + 4 150 = 37 * 4 + 2 4 = 2 * 2 + 0 gcd is 2 ......... 6 = 2 * 3 + 0 gcd is 3

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**77.** Write a Python program to convert RGB color to HSV color. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

(0, 0.0, 100.0) (120.0, 100.0, 84.31372549019608)

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**78.** Write a Python program to find perfect squares between two given numbers. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

[]

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**79.** Write a Python program to compute Euclidean distance. Go to the editor

Note: In mathematics, the Euclidean distance or Euclidean metric is the "ordinary" (i.e. straight-line) distance between two points in Euclidean space. With this distance, Euclidean space becomes a metric space. The associated norm is called the Euclidean norm.

Expected Output :

Euclidean distance from x to y: 4.69041575982343

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**80.** Write a Python program to convert an integer to a 2 byte Hex value. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

1 --> 0x01 2 --> 0x02 3 --> 0x03 4 --> 0x04 5 --> 0x05 6 --> 0x06 7 --> 0x07 8 --> 0x08 9 --> 0x09

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**81.** Write a Python program to generate a series of unique random numbers. Go to the editor

Expected Output :

16

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**More to Come !**

**Do not submit any solution of the above exercises at here, if you want to contribute go to the appropriate exercise page.**

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## Python: Tips of the Day

**Calling an external command from Python:**

The subprocess module in the standard library:

Example:

import subprocess subprocess.run(["ls", "-l"])

The advantage of subprocess vs. system is that it is more flexible (you can get the stdout, stderr, the "real" status code, better error handling, etc...).

The official documentation recommends the subprocess module over the alternative os.system():

The subprocess module provides more powerful facilities for spawning new processes and retrieving their results; using that module is preferable to using this function [os.system()].

The Replacing Older Functions with the subprocess Module section in the subprocess documentation may have some helpful recipes.

For versions of Python before 3.5, use call:

import subprocess subprocess.call(["ls", "-l"])

Ref: https://bit.ly/2ANeuPR

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